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Tyrol

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TYROL, tir'61 (Ger. ti-r61'), or TIROL, Austria, a crownland and principality, situated in the western part of the empire; 11,224 square miles in area, and bounded on the north by Bavaria, on the east by the crownlands of Salzburg and Carinthia, on the south by Italy and on the west by Italy, Switzerland and Vorarlberg. With the latter crownland it forms an administrative district. Its area, ex dusive of Vorarlberg, is 10,300 square miles. Almost the whole area is included in the East ern Alps, which are here almost as high and quite as complex, wild and romantic as the Swiss Alps, including large glaciers, gorges and moun tain torrents. The highest point is the Ortler Spitze on the western boundary; altitude, 12,802 feet. The chief rivers are the Inn in the north, flowing into the Danube, and the Adige in the south, flowing to the Adriatic. But little of the soil is suitable for agriculture though consid erable quantities. of grapes and fruits are grown. Cattle, sheep and goats are raised in large num bers. Iron, zinc, copper and lignite are mined to some extent. The principal industries are cotton spinning and weaving. The chief ex ports are cattle, cheese, lard, wine and fruit. Of the inhabitants 55 per cent are German and 44 per cent Italians; nearly all are Roman Catholics. The capital is Innsbruck. Tyrol was anciently the eastern portion of Rhxtia. It came under the House of Hapsburg in 1359 through Margaret, the heiress of the last counts.

In 1805 it was ceded to Bavaria, but restored to Austria in 1814. Pop., exclusive of Vorarlberg, 852,712.

TYRONE, Hugh O'Neill, 2d EARL ore, Irish chieftain and soldier: b. about 1550; d. Rome, 1616. He was the grandson of the 1st earl and son of Baron of Dugannon. His early life was spent in England. After the murder of his brother in 1562 he returned to Ireland, succeeding to the barony. He was called "The O'Neill," and was the leader of the Irish insur rection against Elizabeth and English occupa tion. Both Connacht and Leinster soon joined the standard of the Ulstermen and were met by an English army under the Earl of Essex and engaged in a war for supremacy. For some years Tyrone baffled the English army, but was overcome by Lord Mountjoy in 1603, in spite of the aid of Spain, and compelled to surrender. He was pardoned later and rein stated in his earldom. In 1607, being suspected of further intrigue, he fled to Brussels, and later to Rome, where he passed the remainder of his life living on a small stipend furnished jointly by the Pope and the king of Spain. Consult Meehan, 'Fate and Fortunes of Ty rone and Tyrconnel' ; Gainsforde, 'True Ex emplary and Remarkable History of Hugh, Earl of Tyrone' (1619) ; Bagwell, 'Ireland Under the Tudors' ; Mitchel, John,