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Uganda Protectorate

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UGANDA PROTECTORATE, a British East Africa protectorate lying north of Lake Victoria Nyanza and bounded on the north by the 5th parallel of north latitude, dividing it from the Egyptian Sudan, on the east by Lake Rudolf and the British East Africa Protecto rate, on the south by Victoria Nyanza and East Africa (late German colony) and on the west by the Belgian Kongo. Its total area is 109,119 square miles, including 16,377 square miles of water. For purposes of administration Uganda is divided into five provinces (a) the Eastern province, comprising the districts of Busoga, Bukedi, Teso, Lango, Karamojo and Lobor; (b) Rudolf province, comprising the districts of Turkwel, Turkana and Dabossa ; (3) North ern province, comprising the districts of Bun yoro, Gulu, Chua and West Nile; (d) the Western province, comprising the districts of Toro, Ankole and Kigezi; and (e) Buganda province, with islands in Lake Victoria, com prising the districts of Mengo, Masaka, Mu bendi and Entebbe. With the exception of the Rudolf province and the districts of Karamojo and Lobor, the whole protectorate is at present under direct administration; but the native kings and chiefs, whose rights are in some cases regulated by treaties, are encouraged to con duct the government of their own subjects. The province of Buganda is recognized as a native kingdom under a kabaka, who is as sisted in the government by three native mM isters and the Lukiko, or native assembly. In Buganda and in Bunyoro, Ankole and Toro purely native matters are dealt with by the Lu kiko, but in certain cases there is an appeal to higher courts. For Europeans and non-natives justice is administered by English courts.

Topographically Uganda is greatly diversi fied, having great plains, forests, swamps, des erts and snow-capped heights. Rudolf prov ince is very hot and although it has an elevation of over 2,000 feet it is very barren. The most fertile portion of the protectorate lies to the north of Victoria Nyanza, although the climate here is unhealthful and fraught with malaria. The part adjoining the Belgium Kongo on the west has well-forested hills and fertile plateaus and the climate is healthful. There is a pe culiar native grass, much used by the natives as thatch, which often reaches a height of 12 feet or over. Lions and leopards, antelopes, wild cattle and crocodiles are numerous. Iron ore has been found in several districts and gold has been found in the north. Cotton is now grown in ever-increasing quantity. In March 1917 the total population of Uganda was 2,954,861, comprising 2,950,504 natives, 3,548 Asiatics and 809 Europeans. Among the natives approximately 600,000 belong to the intelligent, civilized Baganda, a race converted to Chris tianity in the 19th century. Education is in the hands of missionary societies, French (Catholic) and English (Anglican), to which the government grants about $6,000 yearly for scholarships for students and teachers. The Bantu languages are spoken by about 1,700,000 natives, a few Kongo pygmies live near the Semliki River, the remainder of the natives are of the Masai, Nilotic or Sudanese stocks. In

1917 the total imports amounted in value to about $6,500,000 and the exports to $5,380,000. The principal imports were textiles and yarns, $1,600,000; foodstuffs, $700,000; cotton, blankets, 150,000; sacks, $120,M0; soap, $122,000; bi cycles, $84,000; petroleum, etc., $75,000; agri cultural implements, $75,000; clothing, $60,000. Exports consisted mainly of cotton, $1,800,000; coffee, $560,000; chillies, $135,000; ghee, $90, 000; rubber, $29,000.

In 1917 the revenue of the protectorate was $1,577,290 and the expenditure $1,446,540. The headquarters of the British administration is at Entebbe; the native capital of Uganda is at Mengo, Kampala. Nile steamers from Khar tum ply to Rejaf, which is about eight days' march from Nimule, the northern boundary of the protectorate. A regular steamer service is maintained by the Uganda Railway Administra tion between Kisumu, the railway terminus, and Entebbe, Port Bell and Jinja, all on Lake Vic toria. The Busoga Railway Marine deals with traffic on Lake Kioga. There is also a steamer and subsidiary craft plying on Lake Albert and the Nile between Butiaba and Nimule. The Busoga Railway, 62 miles long, joins Jinja, on Victoria, to Namasagali, a point on the Nile below the rapids. There are also a railway between Port Bell and Kamfala and a number of motor transports. The protectorate has 1, 373 miles of telegraph line and there are tele hone exchanges at Entebbe, Kampala and Jinja.

The currency is based on the Indian rupee and consists of silver rupees with a subsidiary coinage of 50- and 25-cent pieces and minor coins of nickel. British sovereigns also are in circulation.

The territories now included in the protec torate came under British influence in 1890 and a portion of them was for a time adminis tered by the British East African Company. In 1894 a British protectorate was declared over the kingdom of Uganda and some of the ad joining territories and the area was gradually extended to the present limits. Speke first vis ited the . region in 1862 and in 1875 H. M. Stanley passed through it.

Bibliography.— 'Handbook for East Af rica, Uganda and Zanzibar' (Mombasa, an nual) ; Ansorge, W. J., 'Under the African Sun' (London 1899); Austin, H. H., 'With Macdonald in Uganda' (London Cun ningham J. F., 'Uganda and its Peoples' (Lon don 1905); Grogan, E. S., and Sharp, A: H., 'From the Cape to Cairo' (ib. 1900); Kmunke, R., 'Quer durch Uganda' (Berlin 1913) ; Koll mann, P., 'The Victoria Nyanza: The Land, the Races and Their Customs' (London 1900); Lloyd, A. B., 'Uganda to Khartoum' (ib. 1906); MacDonald, J. R. L., 'Soldiering and Surveying in British East Africa' (ib. 1897); Mullins, J. W., 'The Wonderful Story of Uganda' (ib. 1904); Portal, G., 'Mission to Uganda' (ib. 1894) ; Purvis, J. B., 'British East Africa and Uganda' (ib. 1909) ; Rolin, 'Le droit de l'Uganda' (Brussels 1910); Roscoe, J., 'The Northern Bantu' (Cambridge 1916) ; Stanley, H. M., 'Through the Dark Continent' (2 vols., London 1878) ; 'Uganda Handbook' (annual); Wallis, H. R., 'The Handbook of Uganda' (London 1913) and travel works of Burton, Speke, Baker, Junker, etc.