ULTRAMONTANISM, term which origi nated in France to designate certain policies, teachings and tendencies favored by the Church ultra montes, across or beyond the Alps, and opposed to the interests of the Gallican Church: later, Ultramontanism was used to denote the whole theological system of the Church of Rome and the doctrine of papal infallibility. Previous to the Vatican Council of 1869-70 Ultramontanism was an issue within the Church. At present it is extremely difficult to define the essential character of Ultramontan ism, as it has manifested itself since 1870. Many Catholics have noted that within recent years over 70 per cent of the appointees to epis copal sees have been men who have made their theological studies in Rome and were in conse quence imbued with ultramontane opinions, and would carry out the papalistic system, that is the concentration of all power in the person of the Pope. Consult article (Ultramontanism' in (Realencyclopadie far protestantische The ologie and Kirche' (3d ed., 1908, Vol. XX, p.
213 et seq.).
oo'loogh-beg (or BEIGH), Mongol astronomer: b. 1394; d. 1449. He was the grandson of Timiir, or Tamerlane (q.v.) ; governed western Turkestan as regent for his father, Shah Rokh, while the latter was em ployed in regulating the affairs of the southern half of the empire, and succeeded in 1447 to the imperial throne on his father's death. He built at Samarkand an observatory where he pre pared tables of the sun, moon and planets, and compiled the first original star-catalogue since Ptolemy, redetermining the position of 992 fixed stars. He wrote in Arabic, from which Persian translations were later made. This catalogue was edited in England by Hyde Longitudinis et Latitudini*) Ox ford 1665, etc.), and by Baily in 1843 (Vol.
R XIII of the Royal Astronomical Society's Xiii of the Royal Astronomical Society's 'Memoirs), London 1843).