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Ulysses

island, escaped, companions, goddess, worship, chanda and ithaca

ULYSSES, (Gr. &ova*, Olysseits, "the hater"; Lat. Ulixes), Greek hero. He was king of the island of Ithaca, son of Anticlea and Laertes. He sailed with 12 ships in the Greek expedition against Troy. During the Trojan War (q.v.) he was noted for his eloquence, sagacity and prudence. He was, therefore, often chosen for the services of a spy. After Achilles' death, he received that chieftain's armor, the award driving Ajax mad. But he is best known through the series of adventures and misfortunes which the enmity of Poseidon compelled him to undergo during the 10 years of his return to "far-seen rocky Ithaca." This return is the subject of Homer's (Odyssey' (q.v.). Odysseus,. according to Homer, was thrown upon the coasts of Africa, and visited the country of the Lotophagi, and of the Cy dopes, in Sicily. Polyphemus seized him, with his companions, six of whom he devoured (see POLYPHEMUS) ; but the prince, having intoxi cated him and put out his one eye, escaped from the cave. lEolus, whose island he visited, gave him a bag of winds to carry him home. His companions opened the bag, the winds escaped and they were driven back to the island of )Eolus. Again sailing onward he reached a land inhabited by cannibal giants, the Lmstry gones, from whom he escaped with only one ship. Then he was thrown upon the island /Ewa, where Circe changed his companions into swine. Subsequently he passed along the coast of the Sirens and escaped the monster Scylla (who seized some of his men, however) and the whirlpool Charybdis. In Sicily his com panions killed the sacred oxen of the sun, for which Zeus destroyed his ship by lightning, and all were drowned except Ulysses, who swam to Ogygia, the island of the nymph Calypso, where for seven years he had to remain. The gods at last interfered, and Calypso suffered him to depart on a raft built by himself. Poseidon raised a storm and sunk his raft. Ulysses swam to the island of the Phieacians where King Alcinous hospitably entertained him, and sent him home in a ship to Ithaca, after an absence of 20 years. He found his palace be sieged by a set of insolent suitors for the hand of his wife, Penelope. With the aid of his son, Telemachus, he put the suitors to death. A por

tion of his adventures forms the theme of Stephen Phillips' striking blank verse play (Ulysses' (1902) ; and Tennyson's noble (Ulysses' is also concerned with the life of the Greek hero. Consult Likker, Friedrich, lexikon des klassischen Altertums) (8th ed., Leipzig 1914).

UMA, in Hindu mythology, the con sort of the god Siva. She is also usually des ignated under the names of Kali, Durga, Devi (q.v.), Pirvati, Bhavani, etc. This goddess is worshipped in various parts of India; but the textbook of her worshippers is the aDevima hatmya? or °the majesty of Devi"— a portion of the aMarkandeya Purana," in which are detailed the martial feats of the goddess. These con sisted chiefly in the destruction by her of two demons, Madhu and Kaitabha, who had endan gered the existence of the god Brahman, in her victory over the demon Mahisha, or Mahis hasura, who, having conquered all the gods, had expelled them from heaven; and the defeat of the army of Chanda and Munda. She is often represented holding the severed head•of Chanda in her hand, with the heads of his soldiers formed into a wreath about her neck, and their hands spread into a covering for her loins. The worship of Kali (the Black), to which the nar rative (of her victory over Chanda and Munda) has given rise, is considered by the Hindus themselves as embodying the principle of atamas,a or darkness. She is represented as delighting'in the slaughter of her foes, though capable of kindlier feeling to her friends. She is, however, styled the Black Goddess of Terror, frequenting cemeteries, and presiding over ter rible rites, fond of bloody sacrifices; and her worship taking place in the darkest night of the month. Her chief worship is in Bengal where her animal feast is one of the great religious and social events of the year. Max, Muller (1823-1900) develops the myth of Uma into one of those solar myths suggested to the primitive mind by the most familiar of astronomical phe nomena. Consult Barnett, L. D., of India' (1913) ; Muir, John, 'Original San scrit Texts' (London 1873) ; Wilkins, W. J., Mythology' (London 1900).