UNITED STATES INDIAN TRAIN ING AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, at Carlisle, Pa. It was established on the present site in 1879, but its real beginning was in 1875, when 74 Indians were brought as prisoners of war to Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, Fla. When put to work at the fort they proved intelligent and trustworthy, and their skill as workmen aroused the interest of some of the women of Saint Augustine, who established a school for them and taught them English. In 1878. when their term of confine ment was over, 22 asked to stay in the East to attend school, 17 of whom were placed at Hampton Institute; Capt. R. H. Pratt of the United States army was then authorized to bring 50 mire Indians from the Dakota reserva tion to Hampton. He soon found that a separate school for the Indians was desirable, and the abandoned army post at Carlisle was assigned for the uses of a school in 1879. In October of that year he brought the first Indian pupils to Carlisle. The aim of the school has always been to prepare the Indians to take part in the life of a civilized community as citizens on an equality with other citizens, and thus to free them from especial and separate supervision. The courses offered are of elementary and secondary grade, and are grouped about four central subjects, the Eng lish language, history and literature, science, and form and number (including geometry and algebra}. There are also excellent music and art departments. A normal department was organized in 1894 and provides instruction in psychology (elementary), pedagogics, history of education, and methods of teachings sloyd, with practice work. The industrial work is a prominent feature, half the school day being devoted to some productive industry. Instruc tion and practice is given in carpentry, black smithing, painting, harness-making, tinsmithing, shoe-snaking, laundry work, hospital and nurse work, sewing, household and domestic economy (including special course in bread-making), farming and dairying. Another important part
of the work is the systematic physical training. gymnastic classes being arranged for boys and girls in all grades; athletic sports are also en couraged, and the football team has a national reputation for excellent playing. The most dis tinctive feature of the school is the ((outing sys tem,° by which the school requires all its stu dents to spend at least one year in some white family under the supervision of the school. During the winter they attend the public school in their neighborhood, and when not in school receive regular wages for work on the farm or in the home; a portion of these wages is placed in the school bank and draws interest. This system, which has been in force since the be ginning of the schools, has proved eminently successful; the Indians have been pleasantly welcomed in the homes to which they go, and have proved themselves, as a rule, helpful and congenial members of the family. Over 800 pupils are sent out every summer, and about half that number remain out every winter. The aim of this system is to enable the Indians to gain direct, personal experience in self-support by honest work, and an insigl.t into the respon sibilities and amenities of civilized family and institutional life in its best and most attractive forms. The united earnings of the students who were working outside, in 1909, amounted to about $40,000. A weekly paper, The Red Man and Helper, is printed in the school shop by Indians. The school is under the control of the Indian Office of the United States govern ment, and is supported by government appro priation. The students in 1910 numbered 1,075; the total enrolment since the beginning was more than 7,000.