UNITY SYSTEM OF ORGANIZATION. A recent method of systematization of large corporations is that devised by Charles Delano Hines, frequently called the Hines system of organization. It is claimed to be based on the idea that the theory of organization is one of the branches of the science of sociology. The aim and purport of this method is to lay down scientific lines on which AO bring about a solu tion of problems of the complex nature found in large industrial corporations in a manner that is strictly simple and direct. The system is claimed to be applicable to governmental, educational and commercial and industrial func tions though its use has been brought, so far, into practice only on several railways. The in ventor of the method terms it the "Unit System* because he starts and ends on the basis of a treatment of all social or industrial entities as divided into units. The individual is a unit, the association of a number of in dividuals in a body produces a higher unit and so on into any number of units of division of a corporation however large the aggregation; and however complex the system, it is divided into its constitutent unit parts, each part held responsible for the carrying out of its duties and each person retaining his unit value and responsible in turn for his separate individual duties. All with the aim of render ing the complex conditions simple in their units of practice.
Applied to railways the plan abolishes the official titles general superintendent, Superin tendent of motor power, chief engineer, super intendent of .transportation, general store keeper, etc., at headquarters. The incumbents retain their individual responsibilities hut serve tinder the titles °assistant general managers° of the railway; divisional officials such as mas ter mechanic, division engineer, train-master, etc., assume the titles superintend
ents." The number of officials in these capaci ties are regulated as before by the requirements of the different railways. The former superior official, while losing his individual grade title, to become assistant general manager number one, or assistant superintendent number one, etc. With the absence from headquarters of a senior offi cer (number one, etc.) his superior officer places the next best adapted for the position on the post to manage as superior at head quarters. This changing of positions with the underlying change of responsibilities in the system is used at times to give the officers and staff a rotation of offices. And by this method it is endeavored to fit the units into the gen eral working of the whole so as to permit inter changeability of the parts or units without fric tion or reduction of efficiency of the machine. It is claimed to give to all a wider activity and enlarged practical knowledge of workings of the organization in its complex entirety. The purpose is to break down the fines of demarca tion, red tape, etc., frequent in railway (and other organization) management, making the offices more liquid, while initiating the indi viduals into a better purview of the organiza tion. The individuality is maintained of the units by their retaining each his responsibility for the fulfilment of his special duties, his personal activity being made clear tq all by his individual signature appearing on all papers instead of the usual initals; this rule is carried out through all the ranks from chief to opera tor and clerk.