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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

Units Of Measurement
Units Of Measurement. When Any Physical Quantity Is To Be Measured, It Is Necessary To Select A Unit In Terms Of Which The Magnitude Of The Quantity Is To Be Ex Pressed. We May, If We Choose, Select An Entirely Arbitrary Unit For Each Different Kind Of Quantity To Be ...

Unity System Of Organization
Unity System Of Organization. A Recent Method Of Systematization Of Large Corporations Is That Devised By Charles Delano Hines, Frequently Called The Hines System Of Organization. It Is Claimed To Be Based On The Idea That The Theory Of Organization Is One Of The Branches Of The Science Of Sociology. ...

Universal Language
Universal Language, A General Term Applied In Modern Times To Any One Of Those Artificial Languages Designed For Facilita Ting Intercourse Between Peoples Whose National Languages Differ One From The Other. The Need Of A Universal Language Has Been Keenly Felt From The Earliest Times. In The Early Days Of ...

Universalism
Universalism. Universalism Is A Be Lief In The Final Triumph Of Good Over Evil In The Universe. As Applied To The Human Economy, It Is A Belief That God Is Pledged By His Good Ness And Omnipotence To Put An End To Sin And Ultimately Tosave The Whole Family Of ...

Universals
Universals, Logical Entities Which May Be Exemplified By Instances. Universals Com Prise Attributes, Which May Be Embodied In A Situation Into Which Hut One Individual Thing Enters, And Relations, Which Require For Their Exemplification A Situation Wherein At Least Two Distinct Things Are Found. Ever Since Plato Regarded His Universals ...

Universe
Universe. In The Article Stars Will Be Found A Description In Detail Of Those Wonderful. Bodies Which Stud The Sky. In The Present Article We Consider These Bodies As Forming A Connected Whole, Which We Call The Universe, And Which Comprehends Creation In Its Widest Extent. Many Questions Connected With ...

University
University. Introductory.— It Is Dif Ficult To Define The American University. In A Certain Sense It May Be Said Not To Exist. When We Speak Of The English Universities, The Ger Man Universities Or The University Of Paris, We Have In Mind Educational Institutions Of Distinctive If Not Of Actually ...

University Of Alabama
University Of Alabama, The High Est Educational Establishment Of The State Alabama, And A Part Of The Public School System Maintained By The State. The University Is Ad Ministered Through The Following Organizations: The College Of Arts And Sciences; School Of Education; College Of Engineering; School Of School Of Medicine ...

University Of South Carolina
University Of South Carolina, The State College Located At Columbia, S. C., Chartered In 1801, And First Opened In 1805. In July 1863 The College Was Closed On Account Of The Civil War, Many Students Having Enlisted In The Confederate Army, And The Buildings Were Used As A Hospital By ...

University Of Southern Cal
University Of Southern Cal Ifornia, Located At Los Angeles. It Was Established In 1879 And First Opened To Students The Following Year. The Institution Is Under The Auspices Of The Methodist Episcopal Church. Men And Women Are Admitted On Equal Terms. The Organization Includes Nine Colleges, I.e., Liberal Arts, Physicians ...

University Of The South
University Of The South, Lo Cated At Sewanee, Tenn. It Was Chartered In 1857 By The Southern Dioceses Of The Protestant Episcopal Church; The Site And Endowment Were Obtained, And The Central Building Begun, When The Civil War Stopped Further Operations And Rendered The Endowment Worthless. In 1867 More Funds ...

University Of The State
University Of The State Of New York, The. At The Close Of The American Revolution There Existed In New York City An Institution Known, Previous To That Time, As King's College, Which During The Revo Lution Had Become Thoroughly Disorganized. Its Property Had Been Largely Dissipated, Its Course Of Instruction ...

Upas Tree
Upas Tree, A Javanese Tree (antiaris Tosicaria), Celebrated For Its Poisonous Quali Ties, Which, However, Have Been Very Much Exaggerated. It Was Long Believed In Europe That This Tree Was A Solitary One Situated In A Valley In Java, That The Pestilential Qualities Of, It Were So Great That Neither ...

Upham
Upham, Thomas Cogswell, American Clergyman And Educator: B. Deerfield, N. H. 30 Jan. 1799; D. New York, 2 April 1872, Although His Residence Was Kennc Bunkport, Me. After Graduating From Dartmouth College In 1818 And Andover Theological Seminary In 1821 He Served Two Years As Assistant In Hebrew In The ...

Upper Senegal And Niger
Upper Senegal And Niger, French West Africa, A Colony Formed In 1904 From The Territories Of Senegambia And The Niger, Acquired In 1893. It Extends South Of Algeria To The Northern Boundaries Of Dahomey, Togo, The Gold Coast And The Ivory Coast, With The Military Colony Of The Niger On ...

Upton
Upton, Emory, American Soldier: Tavia, N. Y., 27 Aug. 1839; D. San Francisco, Cal., 14 March 1 N.1. He Was Graduated At West Point In 1861 And Soon Became Lieutenant Of The Fifth Artillery. While Serving On The Staff Of General Tyler He Participated In The First Battle Of Bull ...

Ural Altaic Languages
Ural-altaic Languages, A Fam Ily Of Languages Of Which Two Grand Divisions Are Recognized By Max Muller, The Northern And The Southern. In The Northern Division Are Comprised The Tungusic, The Mongolic, The Turkic, The Finnic And The Samoyedic. The Tungusic Dialects, Lowest Of All These In Organ Ization, Extend ...

Uranium
Uranium, A Metallic Chemical Element, Symbol U, Atomic Weight 238.5, Specific Gravity 18.6. It Was Discovered By Klaproth (1789) In The Mineral Pitchblende And Named By Him In Honor Of Herschel's Discovery Of The Planet Uranus. The Body Discovered By Klaproth Was Really The Oxide Of Uranium, The Free Metal ...

Urberweg
Urberweg, Friedrich, Ger Man Philosophical Writer: B. Leichlingen, Rhen Ish Prussia, 22 Jan. 1826; D. Konigsberg, Prus Sia, 9 June 1871. He Was Educated At Gottingen And At Berlin And In 1862 Became Extraordinary Professor At Konigsberg. He Was Appointed To The Chair Of Philosophy There In 1867 And Re ...

Uremia
Uremia, A Toxic Condition Caused By The Presence In The Blood Of Urinary Constituents Which Normally Should Be Secreted By The Kid Neys. The Nervous System Is Especially Affected By The Poisonous Blood, As Shown By Mental Disturbances, Convulsions, Headache, Nausea, Dyspncea, Disordered Vision And Coma. What The Toxic Material ...

Urga
Urga, Oor'gd, Or Bogdo-kuren, Central Asia, A Town, The Capital Of Northern Mongolia, On The Tola, At An Elevation Of 4,370 Feet Above Sea-level. It Contains Several Large Buddhist Monasteries, Occupied By About 10,000 Monks, And Is A Sacred City Of The Budd Hists, The Seat Of A High Priest ...

Uribe
Uribe, Antonio Jose, Colombian Lawyer : B. Medellin, Colombia, 6 March 1869. He Was Educated At The Universities Of Antioquia And Bogota, Colombia; Was Professor Of The History Of Spanish Literature At The University Of An Tioquia In 1891-92. He Was Secretary Of Agri Culture In 1891, Member Of Assembly ...

Urinary Analysis
Urinary Analysis, That Branch Of Chemical And Microscopical Analysis Which Has To Do With The Detection Or Quantitative Estima Tion Of The Constituents Of Urine. In Practice, It Is Mostly Concerned With The Examination Of The Urine For Such Constituents As May Have A Known Clinical Significance. The Average Quan ...

Urine
Urine, The Fluid Secreted By The Kidneys, Stored In The Bladder And Discharged By The Urethra. It Is An Excrementitious Fluid, Eject Ing From The System Substances Which If Re Tained Would Impair Health And Destroy Life (retention And Suppression Of Urine). Healthy Urine Consists Of Water, Urea, Uric Acid, ...

Urquiza
Urquiza, Justo Jose De, Argentine Soldier And Politician: B. Near Con Cepcion Del Uruguay (now In Entre Rios, Ar Gentina), 19 March 1800; D. There, 11 April 1870. He Was Of Mixed Spanish And Indian Blood And During The War In La Plata In 1835 42 Gradually Rose In Influence ...

Ursinus
Ursinus (er-srnils) College, Located At Collegeville, Pa. It Was Incorporated In 1869, And Was First Opened To Students In 1870; Free Land Seminary, Whore Property Was Purchased For The College, Was Incorporated Into The Col Lege As Its Preparatory Department; In 1871 A Theological Department Was Organized. The College Is ...

Uruguay
Uruguay. (repfiblica Oriental Del Uru Guay), Smallest Of The Independent Countries Of South America, Bounded On The North And Northeast By Brazil, On The East By The Atlantic Ocean, On The Southeast And South By The Atlantic Ocean And The Estuary Of The Rio De La Plata, And On The ...

Usselinx
Usselinx, William, One Of The Greatest Promoters Of American Colonization And Founder Of The Dutch West India Company, Under Which New Netherland, And Of The Swedish West India Company, Under Which Delaware Was Settled: B. Of Walloon Parentage At Antwerp In 1567; D. 1647. In His Early Manhood He Visited ...

Usury
Usury. If The Term 'usury' Is To Be De Fined, As In The Strictly Legal Sense, As The Illegal Profit Demanded By A Lender For The Loan Of Money Or Other Property, It Will Be Found That This Offense Society Is Almost As Old As Society Itself. Even In The ...

Utah
Utah, University Of, The State Univer Sity Is Located At Salt Lake City. It Was Incor Porated As The University Of The State Of Des Eret In 1850 And Opened To Students In That Year. But As It Failed To Secure Patronage Or Adequate Financial Support, It Was Closed After ...

Utah
Utah, The 45th State In The Union, Takes Its Name From A Tribe Of Indians (utes Or Yutas) Whose Habitat Was In The Region Settled By The Founders Of This Commonwealth. It Lies Between Lat. 37° And 42° N. And Long. 109° And 114° W., Comprising An Area Of 84,000 ...

Utica
Utica, Fi'fi-ka, N. Y., City, County-seat Of Oneida County, On The Mohawk River And The Erie Canal And On The New York Central And Leased Railway Lines, The West Shore, Etc., The Delaware, Lackawanna And Western And The Ontario And Western Railroads, About 80 Miles West Of Albany And 50 ...

Utopia
Utopia. Probably Nothing Illustrates Bet Ter Lowell's Description Of A Classic As °a Com Mentary On The Morning Paper° Than The Fact That Sir Thomas More's (utopia,' Published Just 400 Years Ago, Discusses Practically All The Important Social Problems That We Are Most Occupied With At The Present Time. Almost ...

Utrecht
Utrecht, Fi'trelct (dutch, Ii'tr'etit), Netherlands, The Capital Of The Province Of Utrecht, Situated On The Old Rhine, Where The Vecht Branches Off From It, 25 Miles South By East Of Amsterdam. It Is A Pleasant Town With Fine Shaded Promenades, And Intersected With Canals. The Old Fortifications Are Laid Out ...

Utrecht_2
Utrecht, Union Of. In The Evolution Of The Political Life Of The Low Countries, Com Prising The Region Which Ultimately Became The Kingdoms Of Belgium And The Netherlands, The Most Notable Events Were The Establishment Of The Duchy Of Burgundy (13134-1482) ; The Act Of Charles V In Detaching The ...

Vaccination
Vaccination, Opposition To. At All Times Since Jenner's Discovery There Has Ex Isted More Or- Less Opposition To Vaccination. In England The Antivaccinationists Have Been Especially Active And In That Country The Pro Visions Of The Vaccination Acts Have Been Largely Rendered Null Through Their Efforts. Parents Are Now Relieved ...

Vaccination
Vaccination Is A Process Of Transmit Ting By Inoculation A Specific Disease Known As Vaccima, Cowpox, Or Modified Smallpox From One•susceptible Reagent To Another —either From Animal To Animal, From Animal To Man, Or From Man To Man. Nearly All The Warm-blooded Animals Are Susceptible To Vaccinia, But They May ...

Vaccine
Vaccine. This Term Has Undergone A Change In Meaning From That Which It Received At The Hands Of Jenner, The Discoverer Of Vaccine Inoculation For The Preventive Treatment Of Smallpox. This Was A Little Over A Hundred Years Ago And Before The Existence Of Modern Bacteriology. Yet The Principle Which ...

Vacuum
Vacuum, In The Strict Sense ,a Portion Of Space Entirely Devoid Of Matter. The "absolute Vacuum," As Thus Defined, Is Still A Mere Intel Lectual Concept Because No Physical Or Chemical Method Has Yet Been Devised For Effecting The Absolute Removal Of Every Last Trace Of Matter From Any Portion ...

Vacuum Pumps
Vacuum Pumps. So Long As The Vac Uum Was Of Interest Mainly To The Physical Laboratories The Forms Of Pumps For Produc Ing Vacua Were Delicate Contrivances, Largely Of Glass, And Of Very Limited Performance, Suitable Only For Experimental Purposes. When The Vacuum Became A Manufacturers' Necessity, The Machinery For ...

Vagrancy
Vagrancy, The Life Or Habits Of An In Dividual Without Fixed Habitation, Or Vagrant, Who Is Classed In Law As (1) An Idle And Disor Derly Person, Able, In Whole Or In Part, To Main Tain Himself And His Family, But Who Neglects To Do So • (2) Rogues And ...

Valencia
Valencia, Vii-len'shi-a (sp. Spain, Capital Of A Province Of The Same Name, On The South Bank Of The Turia Or Guadalaviar, On The Eastern Coast, 185 Miles East By South Of Madrid. The City Walls Were Removed In 1871, And Their Site Transformed Into Broad Boule Vards, But Two Old ...

Valency
Valency Is That Property Of Elements By Virtue Of Which They Unite To Form Compounds. The Atom Of Hydrogen Has Never Been Known To Combine With More Than One Atom Of Another Element In Terms Of This Property Hydrogen Always Shows The Valency Of One. Its Valency Is Therefore Taken ...

Valentinians
Valentinians, The Followers Of Val Entinus, An Alexandrian Gnostic, Who In 141 Went To Rom; Where He Actively Disseminated His Views Up To The Year 160. He Propounded That In The Pleroma (q.v.) There Were 15 Male And As Many Female Mons United In Wedlock Theyoungest Mon, Sophia (wisdom), Brought ...

Valera Y Alcala Galiano
Valera Y Alcala Galiano, Juan, Hoo-an' Va-la' Al-ka-la' Ga-k"-a'-no, Spanish Statesman And Author: B. Cabra, Near Cordova, 18 Oct. 1824; D. Madrid, 18 April 1905. He Studied At Granada, Darned From Jurisprudence To A Diplomatic Career, And Was Secretary Of Le Gation Successively At Naples, Lisbon, Rio De Janeiro, Dresden ...

Valerian
Valerian, The Type Genus (valerians) Of The Valerian Family, Herbs Or Shrubs Having Flowers With Five-parted Perianths, And Funnel Shaped, Short-spurred Corollas, Which Are Gen Erally Of A Pale Rose-color. The Calyx, Which Is Rudimentary, When In Flower, Becomes A Feathery Pappus At The Top Of The Fruit. The Leaves ...

Valladolid
Valladolid, Spain, (1) Capital Of The Modern Province Of The Same Name, A Garrison Town, And Archiepiscopal See, On The Left Bank Of The Pisuerga, A Tributary Of The Douro, At The Confluence Of The Esgueva (largely Covered In) From The East, And The Canal Of Castile From The North, ...

Vallandigham
Vallandigham Clement Laird, American Politician: B. New Lisbon, Ohio, 29 July 1820; D. Hamilton, Ohio, 17 June 1871. He Was Educated At Jefferson College, Pa., And Was Admitted To The Bar In 1842. More Inclined To A Political Than Legal Career, At 25 He Became The Representative Of Columbiana County ...

Valle
Valle), An Italian Humanist: B. Rome, 1407; D. There, 1 Aug. 1457. He Studied Greek And Latin Under Brum And Arispa, Took Orders In 1431 And Was Appointed Professor In The Uni Versity Of Pavia The Same Year. Subsequently Ffi To 1433 He Held The Same Office In Milan, Genoa ...

Valley Forge
Valley Forge, Pa., Village In Chester County, On The Schuylkill River, And On The Philadelphia And Reading Railroad, 24 Miles West Of Philadelphia. Valley Forge Is Noted As The Place Where Washington And His Army Of About 11,000 Men Went Into Winter Quarters, 17 Dec. 1777, After The Occupancy Of ...

Valleys
Valleys, In General, Depressions Of Some Magnitude In The Surface Of The Land. Two Great Classes Of Valleys May Be Recognized,— (1) Structural, And (2) Erosional. The Former Include Depressions Due To Folding, Such As Synclines; Basins Due To Subsidence Of An Area Such As Might Occur In Regions Of ...

Vallisneria
Vallisneria, The Typical Genus Of The Tape-grass Family. It Is Composed Of Aquatic Plants, V. Spirals: Being The Tape-grass Or Eel Grass, Whose Long Submerged Leaves Are Detested By Swimmers; In Chesapeake Bay It Is The Celery,* Upon The Roots Of Which The Canvas Back Feeds, And To Which Are ...

Valparaiso
Valparaiso, Vill-pa-aso (sp. Val-pa-ri Cs6), Chile, The Most Important Seaport Of The Republic And A Centre Of Trade For A Large Part Of Southwestern South America. It Is Located On A Large Bay About 75 Miles West By North Of Santiago. The Leading Industries Are Iron Foundries And Machine Shops, ...

Value
Value. Value Is The Most Important Word In The Whole Science Of Economics. Funda Mentally It Means The Esteem In Which A Thing Is Held, But Under Ordinary Commercial Condi Tions It Means Power In Exchange. There Is No Contradiction Between These Two Ideas, Because The Higher The Esteem In ...

Valverde
Valverde, Val-vieds., Or Fort Craig (n. Mex.), Battle Of. Early In February 1862 Fort Craig, On The Rio Grande, Was Held By Col. E. R. S. Canby, United States Army, With About 3,800 Men, Composed Of Detachments From Three Regiments Of Regular Infantry, Two Of Reg Ular Cavalry, Two Batteries ...

Valves
Valves (from Latin Valve, Folding Doors), A Mechanical Appliance Or Device Em Ployed To Control The Flow Of Liquids, Gases And Loose Material, Such As Sand And Mud, Through Pipes, Chutes Or Other Forms Of Passages. They Operate By The Lifting And Falling, Sliding And Swinging Or Rotating Of Lids, ...

Vampire Bat
Vampire-bat, A Genus Of Blood-suck Ing Bats, Of The Carnivorous Family Phyllosto Momidee, Distinguished By Leaf-like Nasal Appen Dages, Three Joints To The Middle Finger And Often Well-developed Median Incisors. They In Habit South And Central America. Owing To The Inaccuracy Of Travelers' Accounts, Which Have Ascribed Blood-sucking Habits To ...

Van Bokkelen
Van Bokkelen, 1361c-kelan, Libertus, American Educator And Clergyman: B. New York City, 22 July 1815; D. Buffalo, 1 Nov. 1889. Although Most Of His Life Was Spent As Rector Of Various Protestant Episcopal Churches In The States Of Maryland. And New York, And Al Though During The Civil War Period ...

Van Braam
Van Braam, Jacob. A Dutch Soldier Of Fortune: B. Bergen-op-zoom, In The Netherlands, 1 April 1727. He Entered The British Naval Service And Acted As Lieutenant With Lawrence Washington Under Admiral Vernon, In The Ex Pedition To Carthagefia. Then, Accompanying Him To Mount Vernon, He Became The Military Instructor Of ...

Van Buren
Van Buren, Martin, Eighth President Of The United States: H. Kinderhook, N. Y., 5 Dec. 1782; D. There, 24 July 1862. His Father, Abra Ham Van Buren, Was Of Dutch Descent, A Farmer And A Tavern-keeper. He Attented The Village School, Studied At Kinderhook Academy And In 1796, When 14 ...

Van Curler
Van Curler, Arendt: B. Nijkerk, Derland, 6 Feb. 1620; D. Drowned In Lake Chain, Plain In 1667. Pioneer In New Netherland, Founder Of The Dutch Peace Policy With The Iroquois, Initial Explorer Of The Mohawk Valley, Rescuer Of French Captives, He First Made The Settlement Of Rensselaerwijk (albany) A Suc ...

Van Der Capellen
Van Der Capellen, Joan Derck, Dutch Champion Of American Independence: B. At Tiel, 2 Nov. 1741; D. 6 June 1784. He Was Of A Family Famous Since The 12th Century, And Descended From The Chaplains Or Capellani Of France. In The 17th Century, Under Governor Stuyvesant, Two Men Of This ...

Van Der Donck
Van Der Donck, Adrian, Tribune Of The People, The First Lawyer In New Netherland And Author Of The Initial Illustrated Book De Scriptive Of The Country: B. At Breda, North Brabant. He Was Graduated At The University Of Leyden. Appointed Schout-fiscal Or Financial Inspector Of Rensselaerwijk, He Served From 1641 ...