UPPER SENEGAL AND NIGER, French West Africa, a colony formed in 1904 from the territories of Senegambia and the Niger, acquired in 1893. It extends south of Algeria to the northern boundaries of Dahomey, Togo, the Gold Coast and the Ivory Coast, with the Military Colony of the Niger on the east, and on the west Mauritania, the Faleme river and the frontier of French Guinea. The area is about 568,273 square miles. It includes a large part of the Sahara Desert below the Algerian boundary, the Upper Senegal Valley, over two thirds of the course of the Niger River and all the countries in the Great Bend. The re gion is largely plateau land, rising to a height of 1,600 feet. Forests occur, but the land mainly is open and well adapted to agriculture and stock raising. The natives cultivate corn, rice, cotton, millet and nuts, and large herds of cattle abound, Native manufactures include pottery, bricks, jewelry, leather and woven goods. The export trade in 1916 amounted to $62,000 and consisted of cotton, rubber, fruits, oil 'seeds, oil cacao and timber; imports, chiefly food stuffs, cotton goods, me chanical implements and beverages amounted to $193,119. The Senegal-Niger Railway extends
349 miles from Kayes to Koulikoro, whence small steamers ascend the river to Timbuktu. Timbuktu has wireless telegraphic connection with the Eifel Tower in Paris and telegraph lines extend throughout the colony from Kayes to Niamey, Zinder and Lake Tchad. The col ony is under civil administration with colonial judicial and educational systems. The chief towns have regional or urban schools; at Bamako is a school for sons of chiefs and a professional school; at Timbuktu is a Moham medan superior school. The principal towns are Ouaghadougou (pop. 19,330); Bobo-Diou lasso (pop. 8,740) • Bamako, the capital (pop. 8,734) ; Sikasso (pop. 7,825); Segou (pop. 8,400); Kayes (pop. 5,820); Djenne (pop. Timbuktu (pop. 4,270) • Goundam (pop. 3,200 ; Dori (pop. 3,400). Including 1,314 French, the total population of the colony is 5,598,973.