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UTICA, fi'fi-ka, N. Y., city, county-seat of Oneida County, on the Mohawk River and the Erie Canal and on the New York Central and leased railway lines, the West Shore, etc., the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western and the Ontario and Western railroads, about 80 miles west of Albany and 50 miles east of Syracuse. Electric lines extend to surrounding villages and towns. The railroads extending north cross the Adirondack region and connect with the steamers on the Saint Lawrence and with the trunk lines of Canada. The railroads to the south connect with the Erie and some of the lines in Pennsylvania. The large number of passengers who transfer at Utica, 'the gateway to the Adirondacks and the Thousand Islands,* make it one of the most important stations be tween New York and Buffalo.

Manufacturing and The chief manufactures are hot-air furnaces, hosiery and knit goods, men's clothing, machine-shop prod ucts, steam fitting and heating apparatus, lum ber products, marble products, paving material, foundry products and tobacco products. In 1914 there were more than 300 manufacturing establishments listed by the census, with an an nual production of over $30,000,000. In 1918 the local manufactured products were estimated at fully $40,000,000 and 17,000 persons were on the factory pay-rolls. The city is famous for the excellence of its woolen, cotton and knit goods and its hot-air furnaces. Utica ships large quantities of manufactured goods, farm products, fruit, dairy products and livestock. It is a distributing centre for an extensive region extending north and south. It is an important cheese market and large quantities of flowers, especially roses, are shipped to New York.

Buildings and The prin cipal public buildings are the Government build ing, State armory, city hall, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. buildings, pubhc library, Munson Williams Memorial building, churches, schools and business blocks. The altitude of the city is about 505 feet and the slope is sufficient to make a surface drainage. The sewer system is excellent. The water plant is owned by a private corporation which has a paid-up capital of $500,000. The reservoir has a daily capacity of about 4,010,000 gallons. There are a number of small squares and several parks. The streets are wide, paved largely with asphalt and kept clean. Forest Hill cemetery in the suburbs contains the mausoleums of Roscoe Conkling and Horatio Seymour.

Churches and There are over 50 churches, the leading denominations being Roman Catholic, Protestant Episcopal, Metho dist, Presbyterian, Baptist and Lutheran. The charitable institutions are the Utica State Hos pital, the Masonic Home of New York State, Saint Elizabeth's Hospital and Home, Saint Luke's Homeopathic, Faxton and City hospi tals, Home for the Homeless (for aged women), Home for Aged Men and Couples, Saint John's Orphan Asylum, Saint Joseph's Infant Home, Utica Orphan Asylum and the City Orphan Asylum. The Woman's Christian

Association and other organizations do noble work for the relief of the needy.

The educational institutions are three high schools, the public school acad emy, founded in 1843, the Balliol School (Utica Female Academy), the Utica Catholic Academy, 22 ward schools, a teachers' training school, several parish schools, a public free library of 60,000 volumes, libraries connected with each of the three high schools and libraries connected with some of the literary societies. Hamilton College (q.v.), at Clinton, is only nine miles distant from Utica and is reached by steam and electric cars.

Banks, etc.—There are eight banks and one trust and deposit company, three daily and numerous weekly and monthly newspapers.

The government is vested in a mayor and a council of 15 members, who hold office two years. The administrative offi cials are appointed by the mayor, subject to the approval of the council, or are elected by the council.

The original settlement was called Old Fort Schuyler, from a fort which had been erected here during the French and Indian War. It was named in honor of Col. Peter Schuyler. The territory on which Old Fort Schuyler was located formed part of a tract of 22,000 acres, granted 2 Jan. 1734 by George II, king of England, nominally to several persons, but in reality to enure to the benefit of William Cosby, colonial governor of New York and New Jersey. In 1786 a survey of the manor of Cosby, together with a map of the same, was made by John R. Bleecker. It ap pears therefrom that two houses were located near the fort on which is now the east side of Genesee street, and one house on land on the west side. Improvements had been made a little farther westward, somewhere between the present lines of Broadway and State streets, and other improvements in the eastern part of the city. Outside of these evidences of civilization was a vast unbroken forest. The occupant of the house nearest the river, on the western side of the road, was John Cunningham, and his nearest neighbor, on the same side, was George Damuth. The resident on the opposite side was Jacob Christman. The settler toward the west was a man named Mc Namee, and the clearings on the eastern border were designated as those of McNamee and Abraham Boom. It is not known which one of these men came first. Before that time Old Fort Schuyler was an advantageous place of trade between the outlying settlements and the Indians, as there was here a fording place across the Mohawk River and the old Indian path from Oneida Castle here intercepted the path along the river side leading to the portage of Fort Stanwix (now Rome). In 1798 the village was incorporated under the name of Utica, and in 1832 was chartered as a city. Consult 'Outline History of Utica and Vicinity' (Utica 1900) : 'Publications' (Oneida Historical Society).

Population.— The population of Utica in 1910, 74,419; 1915, 80,589.