VALENTINIANS, the followers of Val entinus, an Alexandrian gnostic, who in 141 went to Rom; where he actively disseminated his views up to the year 160. He propounded that in the Pleroma (q.V.) there were 15 male and as many female mons united in wedlock Theyoungest mon, Sophia (Wisdom), brought forth a daughter, Achamoth, whence sprang the Demiurge, who created mankind. This Demiurge aspired to be regarded as the only god, and led many angels into the same error. To repress his insolence, Christ descended, Jesus, one of the highest eons, joining him when he was baptized in Jordan. The DI emi urge had him crucified; but before his death both Jesus the Son of God and the rational soul of Christ had separated, leaving only the sentient soul and the ethereal body to suffer. The Valentinians were divided into many sects and schools. See GNOSTICISM.
VALENTINUS, Begins, German alchemist: b. at the end of the 14th
century. He appears in history as traveling through Spain, England and Holland, and in 1413 he retired to a Benedictine monastery at Erfurt. He was far in advance of his age in knowledge of chemistry. He distinguished be tween bismuth and zinc, produced pure quick silver from sublimate of mercury and nitrate of quicksilver. His special investigations, how ever, were in relation to antimony, and the re sults he attained were accepted as ultimate for at least a century. He discovered muri atic acid, ammonia, fulminating powder, sugar of lead and formulated the earliest method of quantitative analysis. His works remained un published until (1677) a couple of centuries after his death, but they were known to Theo phrastus Paracelsus, who appropriated as his own discoveries some of the scientific secrets which they revealed.