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city, america and bay

VALPARAISO, vill-pa-aso (Sp. val-pa-ri Cs6), Chile, the most important seaport of the republic and a centre of trade for a large part of southwestern South America. It is located on a large bay about 75 miles west by north of Santiago. The leading industries are iron foundries and machine shops, factories for making macaroni, soap, shoes, perfumery, fur niture, etc. There are also tanneries and wood working plants. There are seven banks, in cluding a branch of the National City Bank of New York, several daily newspapers, fine de partment stores, and more than 1,000 business houses enumerated in the city directory. There is an active chamber of commerce, and trade with North America is increasing steadily since the opening of the Panama Canal. There are large floating docks for repairing vessels at the port. Statues of Columbus and Lord Cochrane, Earl of Dundonald, who founded the Chilean navy, stand in conspicuous squares. The water

supply is excellent. The city is the western terminal of the railway to Buenos Aires, com pleted in 1910. There are also railroads to Santiago and Los Andes. There are ocean cables and wireless telegraph stations. The harbor is excellent, and the entrances to the bay well fortified. It was the first city in South America to establish telegraph lines and to adopt gas (1856), to build aqueducts for the water supply, to use street cars (1860). etc. It has experienced several severe earthquakes. On 16 Aug. 1906, and for several days following, earthquakes and fire caused a large amount of damage to the city and surrounding towns, the greater part of the damage being done by the fire which started immediately after the first shock at 7.52 P.M. The climate is temperate. Pop. about 144,000.