VANCOUVER ISLAND, Canada, an is land on the west coast, in the Pacific Ocean, opposite and at no great distance from the west shore of British Columbia, of which province it forms part; length, 285 miles; breadth, from 40 to 80 miles; area, about 20,000 square miles. It has no navigable rivers, but several deep arms of the sea project far inland, forming good har bors. One of the chief of these is Nootka Sound, an inlet on the west coast discovered by Captain Cook in 1778. The sound extends in a northeast direction about 10 miles inland, but in no part is it more than 500 yards broad; it embraces several islands, the largest being called Nootka, famous for the Nootka Conven tion of 28 Oct. 1790 which avertea war between Spain and Great Britain, consequent on a Span ish seizure of British vessels at Nootka the year previously. A granite monument on a rocky islet facing the entrance to Friendly. Cove, erected in 1903 by the Washington University State Historical Society, commemorates the meeting of Quadra and Vancouver, the Spanish and British commissioners whose joint names Vancouver Island bore as a title for half a cen tury. A mountain chain traverses Vancouver Island from southeast to northwest at an average height of between 2,000 and 3,000 feet, the highest point being Victoria Peak, 7,484 feet in, the northern half of the island. Coal is worked at Nanaimo and gold, copper and iron ore and other valuable minerals are found. Forests are numerous and the timber trade is important. Horses, cattle, sheep and pigs thrive well. The puma, the bear, the wolf, two kinds of deer, the marten and other fur-bearing ani mals exist in the less settled parts of the island; partridges, snipes and many varieties of wild fowl are found. The seas and lakes abound
with fish. The climate is damp and cold. The harbor of Esquimalt (q.v.), on the southeast coast of the island, is one of the finest in the continent and is the chief Pacific station of the British fleet. Victoria (a city of 60,000) is the chief town and the capital of British Columbia. A railway connects Victoria with Esquimalt and the great coal-shipping port of Nanaimo, opposite Vancouver (q.v.), which is on the mainland. Pop, about 60,000, including some 10,000 Wakash Indians.
Louis Jules Albert, French historian: b. Paris, 7 July 1853. He was educated at Paris, and appointed to a pro fessorship in the Ecole des Sciences Politiques. His first literary work was a hook of travel, 'En Karriole a travers la Suede et la Norvege). He has devoted himself mainly to writing diplomatic history, making an exhaustive study of state documents. His works in this field are distinguished for elegance of literary form as well as for accuracy in &t ail and a scholarly grasp of his subject. They include