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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 27

Van Dyck
Van Dyck, Dik, Anthonis, Flemish Painter : B. Antwerp, 22 March 1599; D. London, 9 Dec. 1641. He Was Born Of Wealthy Parents, His Father Being Frans Van Dyck, A Prominent Silk Merchant. Young Van Dyck Very Early Displayed A Fondness For Drawing And Especially For The Sketching Of Faces, ...

Van Dyke
Van Dyke, Henry (jackson), American Presbyterian Clergyman And Author: B. German Town, Pa., 10 Nov. 1852. He Was Graduated At Princeton (1873), The Princeton Theological Seminary (1877) And The University Of Berlin (1878) • Was Pastor Of The United Congrega Tional Church Of Newport, R. I. In And Of The ...

Van Rensselaer
Van Rensselaer, Stephen, American Politician And Soldier, Known As The Patroon"; B. New York, 1 Nov. 1764; D. Albany, 26 Jan. 1839. He Was Fifth In Lineal Descent From Killian Van Rensselaer (q.v.), The Original Patroon Of The Dutch Colony Of Rensselaers Wyck. He Entered Princeton College In 1771, But ...

Van Twiller
Van Twiller, Wouter, Or Walter, Dutch Governor Of New Netherland: B. Nieu Kirk, About 1580; D. Amsterdam, After 1646. He Was A Clerk In The Warehouse Of The West India Company At Amsterdam When He Was Chosen To Succeed Peter Minuit As Director-gen Eral Of New Netherland. He Arrived At ...

Vanadium
Vanadium. A Rare Element Which, In Its Chemical Behavior, Is Related To Arsenic, Phosphorus And Nitrogen. Its Symbol Is V, Its Atomic Weight 51.2 And Its Specific Gravity 5.5. It Was Discovered By Seffstrom In 1830 And Derives Its Name From The Scandinavian Goddess Vanadis, Who Corresponds To Freya In ...

Vanbrugh
Vanbrugh, Van-broo', Sir John, Eng Lish Architect And Dramatist: B. London, 1664; D. 26 March 1726. He Was Educated In Eng Land And In France, Entered The English Army In 1686 And From 1690 Till 1692 Was A Prisoner In France, Being Latterly Confined In The Bastile. He Acquired His ...

Vancouver
Vancouver, George, English Naviga Tor: B. 1758; D. Petersham, Surrey, 10 May 1798. He Was Appointed To The Resolution By Capt. James Cook In The Autumn Of 1771 And On His Re Turn From A Voyage Around The World (1772-74) Assisted In The Equipment Of The Discovery And As Midshipman ...

Vancouver
Vancouver, Canada, The Largest City And Chief Seaport Of British Columbia, The Fourth City Of Canada In Population, Is Situated On The Gulf Of Georgia Opposite Vancouver Island On The Northern Pacific Ocean. Its Chief Harbor Front Is On Burrard Inlet, A Spacious Sheet Of Water, Entered By A Passage ...

Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island, Canada, An Is Land On The West Coast, In The Pacific Ocean, Opposite And At No Great Distance From The West Shore Of British Columbia, Of Which Province It Forms Part; Length, 285 Miles; Breadth, From 40 To 80 Miles; Area, About 20,000 Square Miles. It Has No ...

Vandals
Vandals, Van'dalz, A German Nation Or Confederation, Probably Allied To The Goths, Who Occupied At An Early Period The Country Of North East Germany On The South Of The Baltic, Between The Oder And The Vistula. At A Later Period They Appear To Have Descended Into Silesia, And Occupied The ...

Vanderbilt
Vanderbilt, Van'der-bilt, Cornelius, American Capitalist: B. Near Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y., 27 May 1794; D. New York, 4 Jan. 1877. He Was The Son Of A Farmer, Re Ceived But Little School Education, And At 16 Purchased A Ferryboat With Which He Carried Passengers And Farm Products Between Staten ...

Vanderbilt University
Vanderbilt University, A Co Educational Institution Of Higher Learning, Lo Cated At Nashville, Tenn., Founded By Cornelius Vanderbilt Of New York, Who In 1873 Made A Donation Of $500,000 Which Was Afterward In Creased To $1,000,000. The Charter Of The University Was Taken Out In 1872 In The Name Of ...

Vandergrift
Vandergrift, Van-der'grift, Pa., Bor Ough In Westmoreland County, On The Kis Kiminetas River, And On The Western Pennsyl Vania Division Of The Pennsylvania Railroad. 25 Miles East Of Pittsburgh. It Is Situated In A Beautiful Valley And Is Noted For Its Manufac Ture Of Sheet Steel, The Apollo Iron And ...

Vanderlip
Vanderlip, Frank Arthur, American Banker: B. Aurora, Ill., 17 Nov. 1864. His Boy Hood Was Spent On A Farm, And After A Country School Education He Became An Apprentice In A Machine Shop Of His Native Town. He Studied Stenography Nights And Next Was Employed As Reporter On A Local ...

Vane
Vane, Snit Henry, English Statesman, Fourth Governor Of Massachusetts: B. Hadlow, Kent, 1612; D. Tower Hill, London, 26 May 1662. He Studied At Magdalen Hall, Oxford, And Also For A Time At Geneva Or Leyden; Was A Member Of The Retinue Of The English Am Bassador To Vienna In 1631, ...

Vanilla
Vanilla, A Genus Of Orchids, Of Great Economic Value, On Account Of Their Fruits, Which Furnish The Commercial Flavoring-extract Known By The Same Name. Several Species Fur Nish Vanilla, The Most Important Being V. Mini Folia, Indigenous To Mexico And Adjacent Terri Tories. It Is A Robust High-climbing Plant, At ...

Vanity Fair
Vanity Fair. Thackeray's 'vanity Fair' Is Perhaps The Most Novel In The English Language; Certainly No Critic Would Name The Five Best Novels In English And Not Include 'vanity Fair.' It Is Hard For A Novel To Keep Its Place In The Public Mind; Only A Remarkable Novel Can Do ...

Vapor Lamps
Vapor Lamps, A Form Of Lamp Used In Electric Lighting In Which A Rarefied Gas Is Ren Dered Luminous By The Passage Through It Of An Electric Current. All Other Forms Of Artificial Light Now In Practical Use Depend For Their Light Ing Properties Upon The Incandescence Of A Solid— ...

Variation
Variation, In Biology, The Physical De Parture In Any Direction From The Mean Char Acter Of A Species. When The Variation In A Large Number Of Individuals, Generally More Or Less Isolated In Locality, Is Of A Marked And Constant Type, The Group Of Individuals Which Exhibits Such Variation Is ...

Varicose Veins
Varicose Veins, A Diseased Condition Of The Veins In Which They Become Dilated, And Assume A Tortuous Course, Presenting To The Touch A Soft Elastic Sensation, Except In The Situation Of Their Valves, Where They Form Hard Knotty Swellings, Generally Of A Dark Bluish Color. This Disease Occurs Most Frequently ...

Varnish
Varnish. A Solution Of Gums Or Resins Which Is Applied To The Surface Of Objects To Afford A Glaze And Protect The Article So Coated. Its Use Is Largely Decorative And Applied To En Hance The Appearance Of Woodwork (furniture And House Fittings) As It Brings Out The Beauties Of ...

Varnum
Varnum, James Mitchell, American Gen Eral: B. Dracut, Mass., 1749; D. Marietta, Ohio, 10 Jan. 1789. He Was Graduated From Rhode Island College (now Brown University), Studied Law And Established Himself In Practice At East Greenwich, R. I. When The Revolution Broke Out, He Was Appointed Colonel Of A Regiment ...

Varro
Varro, Marcus Terentius Reatinus, Ro Man Scholar And Author: B. Reate, 116 B.c.; D. 27 B.c. He Received A Liberal Education, Held A High Office In The Navy In The Wars Against The Pirates And Against Mithridates, And At The Commencement Of The Civil War Was Serv Ing In Spain ...

Vases
Vases, Vaies, Decorative Vessels Of Vari Ous Shapes And Materials, Generally With One Or More Handles And Variously Embellished And Ornamented By Means Of Relief Work, Incising, Pigments Or Otherwise, And Used For Many Pur Poses. The Vase Form Usually Consists Of The Following Parts Or Members: Rim, Neck, Shoulder, ...

Vassar College
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., A 'college For Women Founded In 1861 By Matthew Vassar. His Original.gift To The College Was 200 Acres Of Land And $428,000; This Was Increased By His Bequest Of $360,000. It Was Incorporated As Vassar Female College In 1861, The Present Corporate Name Being Adopted ...

Vathek
Vathek. This Wonderful Tale Of The East Has A Curious History. It Was Written By William Beckford, When A Young Man, At The Suggestion Of The Rev. Samuel Henley, Then An Assistant Master At Harrow, One Of The Great Public Schools Of England. There Is A Tradition That Beckford Wrote ...

Vatican
Vatican, The, A Palace Situated On The Eastern Sections Of The Vatican Hill In Rome, The Principal Residence Of The Popes Since The Return From Avignon In 1377 And Their Official Residence Since The Capture Of Rome By The Piedmontese In 1870. It Originated In A Resi Dence Built By ...

Vaughan
Vaughan, Henry, Welsh Poet: B. New Ton, Parish Of Llansaintfraed, Brecknockshire, 17 April 1622; D. There, 23 April 1695. He Was Styled °the Silurist," Because His Native Region Was Among The Silures, Or Folk Of South Wales. He Was Educated At Jesus College, Oxford, And Practised Medicine With Much Success ...

Vaughan_2
Vaughan, Victor Clarence, American Physician, Scientist And Educator: B. Mount Airy, Mo., 27 Oct. 1851. He Was Educated At Cen Tral And Mount Pleasant Colleges, Missouri, And At The Universities Of Michigan And Berlin. He Was Appointed Instructor In The University Of Michigan In 1876, Made Professor In 1880 And ...

Vault
Vault, An Arched-covered Enclosure, Hence Frequently Used To Express The Arched Ceiling Or Roof, As Of A Hall, Room, Cellar Or Other Compartment Or Edifice. In A Still Further Extension The Term Vault Is Frequently Used As Synonymous With A Subterranean Compartment, As A Crypt, Cellar, Etc. In Architecture It ...

Vector Analysis 1
Vector Analysis. 1. A Quantity Which Is Related To A Definite Direction In Space Is Called A Vector Quantity, E.g., The Displacement Of A Point, Velocity, Force, Axis Of Rotation, Elec Tric Current; A Quantity Having No Reference To Direction Is Called A Scalar Quantity, E.g., Mass, Volume, Time, Energy, ...

Vedanta
Vedanta, Va-dan'ta, Which Means Liter Ally The End Of The Veda, Or Knowledge, Con Stitutes The Most Impressive • And Comprehensive Structure Of Hindu Philosophy. It Is Not Synonymous With Hindu Philosophy, As Is Gen Erally Supposed, Because The Vedanta Is Only One Of The Six Main Schools Of Indian ...

Vedic
Vedic (va-c111c Or Vedlic) Litera Ture, The Literature Of The Vedas Or Sacred Books Of India. The Language And Literature Of The Aryan Invaders Of India Falls Into Two Periods, The Vedic And The Sanskrit. Vedic Is The English Adjective Formed From The Noun Veda, The Native Name For The ...

Vega Carpio
Vega Carpio, Felix Lope De, Spanish Poet And Dramatist: B. Mad Rid, 25 Nov. 1562; D. There, 26 Aug. 1635. After Studying At Alma He Joined The Army, And In 1588 Accompanied The Invincible Armada. About 1612 He Became A Priest, And Subsequently Pope Urban Viii Made Him A Knight ...

Vegetables
Vegetables, Food Value Of. The Function Of Food Is To Build Up The Tissues Of The Body And Keep Them In Repair, To Yield Energy In The Form Of Heat, To Keep The Body Warm And To Create Strength To Enable It To Do Its Work. A Diet To Accomplish ...

Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism, The Theory And Prac Tice Of Living On Vegetables And Abstaining En Tirely From Flesh Food, Or From All Food Obtained By The Killing Of Animals. The Abstinence From Flesh Food Is The Essential Element In The Con Notation Of The Word Vegetarianism; But Vege Tarians Are Usually Also ...

Velazquez
Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez De Silva Y, Spanish Painter: B. Seville, 5 June 1599; D. Madrid, August 1660. He Came Of Noble Family, His Father Being Juan Rodriguez De Silva And His Mother, Gerenima Velazquez, Both Classified In The Rank Of Hidalgos. At The Age Of 13 He Began The Study ...

Vellum
Vellum. A Medium, Prepared From The Skin Of Calves, For Writing, Painting, Book Binding And Other Purposes. A Very Prevalent Misconception Of The Public Is That Parchment (see Parchment) And Vellum Are One And The Same. As A Matter Of Fact The Finer Kinds Of Parchment Are Often Termed Vellum ...

Velocity Of Electricity
Velocity Of Electricity, The Rate At Which Electricity Is Propagated Through A Conductor. The Velocity Of Electricity Through A Conducting Wire Is In All Cases Very Great When Compared With The Velocities Of Moving Bodies, Such As The Velocity Of A Railway Train Or Of A Projectile; But The Velocity ...

Velvet
Velvet, A Textile Made Of Silk And Cov Ered On One Side With A Close, Short, Fine, Soft Shag, The Other Side Being A Very Strong Close Tissue. The Nap Or Shag, Called Also The Vel Veting Of This Stuff, Is Formed Of Loops Of The Threads Of The Warp, ...

Vendee
Vendee, Vein-dl, France, A Western Mari Time Department Formed From Ancient Poiton, And Deriving Its Name From The River Vendee. It Is Bounded On The North By The Departments Of The Loire-inferieure And Maine-et-loire; On The East By The Department Of Deux-sevres; On The South By That Of Charente-inferieure; And ...

Veneers And Veneering
Veneers And Veneering. Veneer Is A Thin Sheet Of Ornamental Wood, Or Occasion Ally Other Material Used As A Surface To Give A Handsome Exterior Finish To Cabinet Articles Or Other Work, Which Are Made With A Basis Of Cheaper And It May Be Of Stronger Materials. Veneering Is An ...

Venezuela
Venezuela (ital., Little Venice, From The Lake Dwellings On Maracaibo; Officially Los Estados Unidos De Venezuela, The United States Of Venezuela), A Republic Lying In The Northern Part Of South America And Bounded On The North By The Atlantic Ocean End The Caribbean Sea, On The East By British Guiana, ...

Venezuelan Boundary Dis Pute
Venezuelan Boundary Dis Pute. In 1885 A Crisis Arose Between Great Britain And Venezuela Regarding The Boundary Line Separating The Latter Country From British Guiana, A Question Which Had Been Long In Dis, Pute. The Controversy Dated Back To 1814, When Great Britain Acquired By Treaty With The Neth Erlands ...

Wolf Von Sch Ierbra
Wolf Von Sch Ierbra Nd, Formerly Secretary To American Minister To Teheran, Persia. The Best Known And Most Widely Distributed Of The American Vul Tures (cathartidee), Its Range Including The Greater Part Of The United States And The Entire South American Continent. It Is About Two And One-half Feet Long, ...

Woman Suffrage
Woman Suffrage. The Typical State Constitution Contains: (1) A Definition Of Boundaries, Except In The Older States; (2) A Bill Of Rights; (3) A Frame Of Government; (4) A Great Mass Of Miscellaneous Provisions, Arranged With Slight Regard For Logical Classification, To Administration And Law, Including Articles Treating Of Educa ...

Yaper
Yaper. Congress Also Sought Fiscal Aid By Making Requisitions On ,the Different States, By Borrow Ing Both At Home And Abroad And By Attempts To Secure National Taxation. Requisitions Were Made Both In Specie And In Specific Supplies; The Yield Of The Former Was Less Than $6,000,000, And The Demand ...