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occupied, crossed and pannonia

VANDALS, van'dalz, a German nation or confederation, probably allied to the Goths, who occupied at an early period the country of North East Germany on the south of the Baltic, between the Oder and the Vistula. At a later period they appear to have descended into Silesia, and occupied the country about the Riesen Mountains. In the Marcomannian War they attacked Pannonia in conjunction with the Marcomanni and the Quadi. In the reign of Constantine they had migrated or spread them selves into Moravia, whence they were trans planted to Pannonia, from which they mi grated again, taking an eastward direction, into Dacia. In 406 they joined a confederate Ger man host which crossed the Rhine into Gaul, and from thence, after Gaul had been ravaged, the Vandals found their way into Spain, in which they established themselves under their chief Godigiselus. In Galicia they contended with success with another barbaric horde of in vaders belonging to the Suevi, and having van quished a confederate army of Goths and Ro mans, they advanced still farther, and seized and ravaged Seville and Carthagena. Under Genseric, who had newly assumed the leader ship, they crossed to Africa. In 429 they van

quished the Roman governor and established a kingdom, which spread over the greater part of the Romanpossessions on that continent. Gen seric immediately began to revive the maritime glories of Carthage, diligently cultivating the means of maritime warfare and extending his conquests to Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. He also invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 455. The atrocities of the Vandals on this occasion have been a favorite subject of declamation, but Gibbon shows them to have been much ex aggerated. Genseric concluded a long reign in peace in 477. The kingdom of the Vandals was continued under his descendants Hun neric, his son, who immediately succeeded him; Gundamund, 484; Thrasimund, 496; Hilderic, 523; Gelimer, 530. It was overthrown in 534 by Belisarius, the general of the eastern Em peror Justinian. The Vandals adopted the Arian faith, and persecuted the orthodox Chris tians. Consult Gibbon, 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire' ; Schmidt, Ge schichte der Vandal& ; Procopius,