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Vatican

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VATICAN, The, a palace situated on the eastern sections of the Vatican Hill in Rome, the principal residence of the popes since the return from Avignon in 1377 and their official residence since the capture of Rome by the Piedmontese in 1870. It originated in a resi dence built by Pope Sytnmachus (498-514) adjoining the Basilica of Saint Peter, but was rebuilt and greatly enlarged by subsequent popes, especially Nicholas V, Sixtus IV, Alex ander VI and Julius II. The Basilica and Piazza of Saint Peter flank it on the south, while to the west lie the Vatican Gardens. Only a small part of the Vatican is residential and this part is around the Cortile di San Damaso; all the rest is used for scientific or administrative purposes. There are a large number of chapels which serve various pur poses, the most important being the famous Sistine Chapel and the Cappella Paolina. The rear wall of the former contains Michelangelo's Judgment,' while its side walls contain frescoes executed by Florentine and Umbrian masters between 1481 and 1483. The Cappella Paolina, which is separated from the Sistine Chapel only by the Sala Regia, serves as the parish church of the Vatican.

The Vatican contains many works of art either in its museums and collections or as a part of its interior decorations. The Museo embraces 11 separate rooms and among its treasures are the Torso of Hercules, the Belvedere Apollo and the Laocoon. In the Galleria Chiaramonti there are more than 300 sculptures, chiefly the work of Greek sculptors living in Rome. From an architectonic point of view, the Braccio Nuovo, containing statues and busts, is the best of the museum buildings. The Egyptian Museum, embracing 10 halls full of statues, sarcophagi, mummies, etc., is among the first of Egyptian collections of the second rank. The Etruscan Museum contains objects of almost every de scription, giving a highly graphic picture of the art of ancient Italy and the customs of the Etruscans. These two museums are located, one below the other, at the northern end of the Giardino della Pigna.

Besides these museums, there are several galleries of paintings. The Vatican Pinaco theca, whose nuclei's was the •collection of art treasures taken by Napoleon to Paris and subsequently restored to Rome, contains works by Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Angelico, Murillo. Perugino, Titian, Pinturicchio, Guido Rem, Correggio and many other Italian mas ters; while the Gallery of Modern Paintings contains, among others, the huge picture of the promulgation 'of the Immaculate Conception by Pius IX. The Appartamento Borgia con

sists of six rooms adorned with Pinturicchio's paintings. In the second of the rooms the mysteries of the life of Christ are depicted. The last two rooms are situated in the Torre Borgia. One of these formerly contained the delebrated Nozze Aldobrandini, one of the finest antique frescoes surviving from classi cal times, which is now located in the Vatican Library.

One floor higher and an exact reproduction of the Appartamento Borgia in size and shape are the Stanze di Raffaello, so called because they were painted by or under the direction of Raphael. Immediately adjacent to the Stanze are the Loggie di Raffaello, while underneath the latter are the Loggie di Giovanni da Udine, a pupil of the Umbrian master. In the Galleria degli Arazzi hang the famous 27 pieces of tapestry. The studio for mosaic painting, for which the Vatican is justly famous, is said to possess nearly 30,000 dif ferent shades of vitreous compostion.

The scientific materials in the Vatican are abundant and easily accessible to research workers under certain restrictions. Reference is facilitated by a great many volumes (some printed, some in manuscript) of indices, inven tories and catalogues, so that information on all branches of human knowledge may be read ily secured in the Vatican Archives and Library. The scientific management of the Vatican Ar chives is entrusted to a cardinal and the chief groups of archival materials are the Archivio Segreto, the Archive of Avignon, the Archive of the Apostolic Chamber, the Archive of Sant' Angelo, the Archive of the Dataria. the Consistorial Archive and the Archive of the Secretariate of State. The last named contains the correspondence of the nunciatures, lega tions, cardinals, bishops, prelates, princes, titled persons, military men and others. Besides these archives there are various collections, including the huge archive of the old Congre gation del Buon which was entrusted with the economic administration of the Papal States from 1592. The entire collection of archives is of the greatest importance for the political and ecclesiastico-civil history of mod ern times, and is of especial interest to Amer icans because it abounds in materials for Amer can history, particularly of the period of col onization. Consult Fish, C. R.. 'Guide to the Materials for History in Roman and Other Italian Archives> (Washington 1911).

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