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Velvet

loops, pile and woven

VELVET, a textile made of silk and cov ered on one side with a close, short, fine, soft shag, the other side being a very strong close tissue. The nap or shag, called also the vel veting of this stuff, is formed of loops of the threads of the warp, which the weaver works on a long wire, which has attached to it a knife. The withdrawal of the wire cuts the loops of the warp, thus forming the nap. The loom on which velvet is woven has two warp beams instead of one, as with other fabrics. This is necessary because velvet is a textile of two distinct parts, the pile and the ground cloth. A much larger length of thread is used for the pile in forming the loops afterward cut. The beam for the ground cloth is slung at the back of the loom, and as this is woven the pile is worked into it. Double-faced velvet is woven with the loops of the pile thread on both sides of the ground cloth. Uncut velvet, or °terry,' is woven on wires which have no knife at tached. Figured velvet is obtained by alternat

ing cut velvet and terry, using a loom with Jacquard patterns. Velvet brocades are made with the gold and silver threads as extra weft, the figure being wrought in by hand as with embroidery. Florence and Genoa were long noted for the manufacture of velvet, but Lyons, in France, is its principal seat; Krefeld and Elberfeld are the chief seats of velvet-making in Germany. Velveteen and plush are fabrics of cotton or wool woven in much the same manner as true velvet, except that the loops which form the pile are wrought as weft in stead of warp. Corduroy and "thickset' are of this class. Upholstery velveteens in patterns are worked by a peculiar loosening or bulging of the weave of the ground cloth, produced by Jacquard patterns.