UKRAINE, or UKRAINIA (aborder land" or ((march-land"), a great undetermined region in eastern Europe, embracing most of the southern part of Russia in Europe, East Galicia, Northwest Bukovina and Northeast Hungary. The territory may be regarded as a geographic unit standing on ari equal 'basis with the regions known as Great Russia, North Russia, the Ural, White Russia and the Baltic provinces. During the early days of the Russian Revolution a Ukrainian Congress was opened at Kiev in April 1917, when the policy was adopted of national territorial autonomy within the future Russian Federal Republic. The boundaries of the new state were to be the Pripet on the north, the Black Sea and the Se'a of Azov on the south, the Kuban River on the east and the provinces of Lublin and Grodno on the west. A Rada (central council) was formed, which issued a manifesto of autonomy in June 1917. The advent of Bolshevism altered the situation. On 20 Nov. 1917 the Rada proclaimed the Ukranian People's Republic, transferred the land to the peasants, defined the limits of the new state and defied the Bolsheviki. The new republic allied itself with Rumania, Bessarabia, the Donetz Cossacks and the anti-Bolshevik General Kaledin. In December Trotzky sent an ultimatum threatening war unless the Rada ceased to bar the passage of the Bolshevik troops. There was considerable fighting -be tween the two forces, and on 8 Feb. 1918 the Bolsheviki claimed to be in military and politi cal possession of Ukraine and that the Rada had ceased to exist. But that legislative body had sent a delegation to the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference and had announced (11 Jan. 1918) that the Ukraine had resumed its international existence as an independent state. The dele gation was ultimately recognized by Trotzky, but when it began negotiations for a separate peace with Germany and Austria, he protested and introduced some Soviet delegates from the Ukraine. The Austro-Germans, however, recognized the Rada delegates as representing an independent state, and at 2 a.m. on 9 Feb. 1918 the Central Powers signed peace with the Ukrainian republic.
Area and Population.— It is not possible as yet to define with any degree of exactitude the limits, area and population of the Ukraine.
Authorities differ on the subject, and at the present time (August 1919) the republic is conducting a double war against the Poles and the Bolsheviki, the issue of which may result in territorial changes. The state roughly corresponds with the three divisions of south ern Russia known as the Southwestern Ter ritory, Little Russia and New Russia, exclud ing the territory of the Don Cossacks. Ac cording to the treaties of Paris (June 1919), which annulled the Brest-Litovsk and all other Russian treaties concluded by since November 1917, the provisional boundaries of the Ukrainian republic were— on the north, the republic of White Russia; northeast, the Soviet or Bolshevik republic of Russia proper; east, the Don republic ; south, the Sea of Azov, the Tauride (Crimean) republic and the Black Sea; southwest, the reconstituted kingdom of Rumania ; west, the republics of Poland, Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary. It is divided into the governments of Chernigov, Ekaterino slav (or Yekaterinoslav), Kharkov, Kherson, Kiev (Kieff), Podolia, Poltova, Taurida and Volhynia. These nine governments, cut out of what was Russian territory, cover an area of nearly 200,000 square miles. With the added territory taken from Galicia, Bukovina and Hungary, the total area of Ukraine reaches to about 328,200 square miles, of which the population is estimated at 33,000,000. Too much faith, however, should not be attached to these vital statistics, as ((official" figures are either out of date or unreliable, being generally compiled in favor of the ruling race, while the estimates of private authorities differ consider ably. In the first complete Russian census (1897) the total number of Ukrainians in the then Russian Empire was given as 22,400,000; an estimate in 1910 showed 28,900,000. In the former Austro-Hungarian Empire about 4, 000,000 Ukrainians (nominally Ruthenians) dwelt in Galicia, Hungary and the Bukovina in 1910. There are, in addition, some 500,000 Ukrainians in the United States; 300,000 in Canada and over 50,000 in South America. Numerically, this race ranks sixth among the peoples of Europe, the five above them being the Germans, Russians, French, English and Italians. See RUTHENES.