VERMONT, a North Atlantic State'of the North American Union, situated in the north western corner of New England. It is bounded on the north by the province of Quebec, the border line corresponding nearly to the latitude of 45° 0' 43" but the dividing line does not coincide exactly with the parallel as it is not quite straight, being here north of it and there south, though but very little. The eastern boundary was fixed many years ago as the west bank of the Connecticut River at low water. Since this was done the river has in some places changed its course more or less and from this difficulty has arisen between New Hampshire and Vermont and the matter is still undecided. On the south Vermont is separated from Massa chusetts by the parallel of 42° 44', while on the west is New York, from which Vermont is separated for 100 miles by Lake Champlain. Both the eastern and western borders of the State are irregular, but as a whole the area lies between long. 71° 33' and 73° 25' W. The northern border is 90 miles long and from this south the width decreases until at the Massa chusetts line it is 41 miles. The length is 158 miles. The area is 9,565 square miles. The population' in 1791 was given as 30,000 from which it has slowly increased to over 360,000. Vermont is thus one of the smaller States and this fact should be remembered when its re sources and products are compared with those of other States. Notwithstanding this it is probably true that no other State has through the migration of its citizens to all parts of the United States, so deeply affected the character of other States where by reason of industry, thrift and intelligence they have become pros perous and influential. The Vermont delega tion in Congress has always exercised a power quite out of proportion to.the size of the State. The capital of Vermont is Montpelier in Wash ington County, a city located near the geo graphical centre of the State.
At first the whole area of what is now the State of Vermont was claimed by New York and included in Albany County, the courts of that county exercising jurisdiction. In 1768
a tract east of the Green Mountains was named Cumberland County. This includ,ed approxi mately what is now Windham and VVindsor counties. Two years later Gloucester County was defined north of Cumberland and in 1772 on the western side of the mountains Charlotte County was formed. Finally, beginning in 1779 the present division of the State into 14 counties was made in the order given under °State Gov ernment." The coat-of-arms adopted in 1862 consists of ga landscape of green occupying half of the shield, on the right and left in the bacIcground are high mountains, Mansfield and Camel's Hump, in blue with a sky of yellow. From near the base, extending nearly to the top of the shield, is a pine tree in green between yellow sheaves of grain and a red cow on the left side of the field." The crest is a buck's head on a scroll of yellow and blue; the motto is °Vermont, Freedom and Unity"; the seal is the same as the shield, but circular and without any crest and the motto encircles the border.
The climate of Vermont is, as is common in the north temperate zone, very changeable and subject to great differences. There is also considerable difference 1:ietween the mountainous and less elevated portions of the State. The Champlain Valley, which in cludes most of that portion west of the Green Mountains, is more mild than elsewhere. Everywhere the winters are long and often cold while the summers are warm, but not often, nor for more than a few days, hot. The average temperature at the weather bureau in Burlington for five years (1913-17, inclusive) was 432° F. For each month the mean tem perature for the same five years was as fol lows; January, 19.2° ; February, 15.9° ; March, 27°; April, 29'; May, 52.2°; June, 63° ; July, 69°; August, 66.3° ; September, 59°; October, 49° ; November, 35° ; December, 21.3°.