VIENNA, Treaties • of, variouS com pacts arranged by representatives of European nations, at this capital, selected for its central position, and for the prominent part which Austria had always talcen in the wars of mod ern Europe prior to her defeat in. 1918. ,Ishe first treaty of Vienna (30 April 1725) was a mutual guarantee of dominions by Emperor Charles VI and Philip V of Spain; besides which, the fortner agreed to aid in the' re covery of Gibraltar from Britain and to aid the Pretender in supplanting George I of Eng land, in consideration of Philip gtiaraziteeing the Pragmatic Sanction. The second treaty (16 March 1731) WaS a joint guarantee .of the Praginatic Sanction by George II of Britain and the states of Rolland. The third treaty (18 Nov. 1738) was a similar guarantee by Louis XV of 'France. In consideration of the revision.of Lorraine and Bar (to be given meantime to Stanislas, ex-king of Poland), as well as a settlement of the Polish succession dispute, and a rearrangement of the posses sions of Austria, Spain and Sardinia, in Italy. The fourth treaty (14 Oct. 1809) was between France and Austria, after the battle of Wag ram and the armistice of Znaim, by which Austria agreed to resign some districts on the western border of the archduchy to Bavaria; Goritz, Friuli, Trieste, Carniola and parts of Crotia, Corinthia and Dalmatia to France, these provinces to be formed into the tioverii ment-general of Illyna; some districts of Upper Lusatia to the king of Saxony; west ern Gahcta, with Cracow and Zamocz, and a share in the salt mines of Wielicza, to the grand-duchy of Warsaw; and the east corner of Galicia to Russia, a total loss to Austria of 58,170 square miles, with population of 3,500,000 and all her seaports.
The next and far the most important meet ing of the representatives of European nations was the Congress of Vienna, after the first treaty of Pans, for the general settlement of the affairs of Europe. The congress, assem bling 30 Sept. 1814, was composed of Tsar Alexander of Russia, with Count Nesselrode; the king of Prussia, with Hardenberg; Lord Castlereagh, and afterward the Duke of Wel lington, representatives of Britain; Prince Metternich for Austria; Count Talleyrand for France; as well as representatives of Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Rome, Germany and all the other minor powers who were interested per sonally in the deliberations— the total number convened being about 500. But the represen tatives of the minor states, who had expected a species of European parliament, to which all would be admitted, were sadly disappointed by the preliminary resolution of the great powers to constitute two committees, one of which would deliberate on the affairs of Gennany; and the other, composed of the representatives only of Austria, Prussia, Russia and Britain, would discuss the affairs of Europe generally, and decide respecting partition of the con quered districts (formerly belonging to France and her allies), and the frontier of each Euro pean sovereignty. To this latter council Tal leyrand, by the influence of Castlereagh, who early saw the necessity of a counterpoise to the influence of Russia and her follower, Prus sia, in the conferences, was admitted (5 Oc tober); and three days afterward it was in creased by the representatives of Spain, Sweden and Portugal. The first resolution of the European committee, to rearrange Europe w as to leave the parties directly interested nothing more to do than give their adhesion to the arrangements made for them— an arro gation of sovereignty . over all Europe— wa.s
loudly exclaimed against; but the congress was one of rulers and their representatives, and not of the nations and their representa tives; so the indignant clamor on all sides was tmheeded. The points at once and unani mously settled were: the constitution of Bel gium and Holland into one kingdom (the lcingdom of the Netherlands) ; the annexation of Norway to Sweden; the restoration of Hanover, with a law slice of Westphalia, to the king of Great Britain; of Lombardy to Austria ; and of Savoy to Piedmont. But the questions as to the disposal of Poland, Sax ony and Genoa were not so easily settled. Russia and Prussia, vain of their prominent share in crushing Napoleon, were bent on extravagant aggrandizement — Russia insisting on obtaining the whole of the grand duchy of Warsaw (see POLAND), while nothing less than the whole of Saxony and some of the trans Rhenish provinces of Westphalia would satisfy Prussia; and both significantly hinted at the proximity of their colossal armies, with the view of awing the other powers into compliance. But Castlereagh was not amenable to such influ ences; and while steadily refusing to yield an iota to such preposterous pretensions, he joined with Metternich and Talleyrand in a secret treaty, offensive and defensive, 3 Feb. 1815, wirch was cordially acceded to by Hanover. Sardinia, Holland and Baviria. The news of this agreement soon leaked out and produced considerable modification in the pretensions of the northern powers. At last it was agreed that Prussia should obtain a portion of Saxony, Posen, Cleves, Berg, the greater part of the left bank of the Rhine as far as the Saa,r and Swedish Pomerania ; and cede East Friesland, Hildesheim, etc., to Hanover; Anspach and Baireuth to Bavaria; and Lauenburg to Den mark; while Poland, except Posen, Thu -n and those parts of the grand duchy which had been (1809) taken from Austria, was to be erected into a kingdom separate from Russia, but un der the rule of the tsar. Austria recovered the cessions which she had been forced to make (1809), obtained also the Valteltine from Switzerland, and the establishment of collateral Hapsburg lines in Tuscany and Piombino; while Maria-Louisa obtained Parma. The Pope was replaced in his former position as a temporal sovereign; the ancient constitution of Switzer land re-established; and Genoa—despite the strongly expressed aversion of its inhabitants — incorporated with Sardinia The news of Na poleon's return from Elba somewhat hurried the concInsion of these Multifarious arrangements, ytt the negotiations were not interrupted; Met ternich's scheme for a new confederation of the Getman states (the same which continued till 1866) was unanitnously agreed to— the question of mutual indemnities, rectifications of frontier, etc., being subsequently settled 20 July 1819 at Frankfurt, by a tenitorial commission of representatives of the four great powers. The questions of the slave-trade and of the free navigation of the Rhine and its tributaries were brought up by England. and else eatis factorily settled. Ftnally a formal treaty (the fifth treaty of Vienna) was drawn ttp and signed 9 June 1815.