BERTHIER, bar-tya, Louis Alexandre, marshal of France, Prince and Duke of Neu chatel and Valengin, Prince of Wagram: b. Versailles, 20 Noy. 1753; d. Bamberg, 1 June 1815. In the American war of independence he served under Lafayette. In the early days of the Revolution, he aided in the escape of some members of the royal family. He served with distinction in Vendean War, 1793-95. In 1795 was appointed chief of the staff to Kellermann, and by causing the French army to take up the lines of Borghetto, contributed to arrest the advance of the enemy. In October 1797 Bonaparte sent him to Paris to deliver to the directory the treaty of Campo-Formio. In 1798 he received the chief command of the army of Italy, and in the beginning of February made his entrance into Rome, abolished the papal government, and established a consular one. In 1799 he was appointed Minister of War. He afterward became General-in-Chief of the army of reserve, accompanied Bonaparte to Italy in 1800, and contributed to the passage of Saint Bernard and the victory of Marengo. He signed the armistice of Alessandria, formed the provisional government of Piedmont, and went on an extraordinary mission to Spain. He ac
companied Napoleon to Milan, June 1805, to be present at his coronation, and in October was appointed chief of the general staff of the grand army in German . He distinguished him self at Austerlitz and ena, and for his services after the battle of agram (1809) he was given the title of Prince of Wagram. In 1810, as proxy of Napoleon, he received the hand of Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emperor Francis I, and accompanied her to France. Somewhat later Napoleon made him colonel general of the Swiss troops. In 1812 he was with the army in Russia as chief of the general staff, which post he also held in 1813. After Napoleon's abdication he lost his principality of Neuchatel, but retained his other honors, and possessed the favor and confidence of Louis XVIII. Subsequently he retired to Bavaria, where, in a fit of insanity, he committed suicide. His memoirs were published in 1826.