BISHOPS' SCHOOLS. At the beginning of the history of modern schools, the bishops were the chief educators and directors of edu cators, and their schools were the chief seats of education throughout western Europe. It is difficult to ascertain at what date the public schools of grammar and of rhetoric were superseded by the episcopal schools. In the 6th century, however, there is record of the identification of the episcopal office with that of the schoolmaster. This was not effected without opposition. But the necessity of teach ing the gospel to converts brought in the obvi ous need of knowledge of Latin grammar, since it was considered sacrilegious to trans late the sacred words into the heathen tongues. Augustine doubtless set up a school soon after his arrival in England. In Bede's 'Ecclesiastical History) we have a record of a grammar school at Canterbury. From this school the movement spread to France. In England in 635, Paulinus, first bishop of York, introduced a song school, simi lar to the one founded by Pope Gregory at Rome. Theodore and Tobias, bishop of Roches ter, were well known teachers of grammar and rhetoric. Archbishop Egbert and his suc cessor, Ethelbert, are mentioned by Alcuin in 780 as learned teachers of the seven liberal arts. From the end of the 8th century, the bishop himself ceased to teach in the secular cathedrals in most cases, and the duties of instruction and its supervision devolved upon the schoolmaster or chancellor of the church and his assistants. The monastic cathedrals
retained the double function of the bishop. Throughout the 13th and 14th centuries we find references to the bishop's supervision of schools. The Reformation caused the schools to be made part of the new cathedral founda tions, and at the same time brought the bishops into direct connection with all of the schools. Henry VIII, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth appealed to the bishops for aid in supervising the religious tenets of schoolmasters. The canons of the Church and the Orders of Privy Council on successive occasions in 1559, 1580 and 1603 forbade any schoolmaster to teach without the license of the bishop. This in cluded even the elementary schools. After the commonwealth, the bishop's jurisdiction was restricted to grammar or classical schools. It was not until the Endowed Schools Act of 1869 that the bishop ceased to have the right to interfere with secondary schools. The schools were finally freed from all denominational re striction by the act of 1902, which transferred all supervisory power to the board of education.