BRITISH NORTH BORNEO.
British North Borneo comprises the north ern tip of the island of Borneo — a triangular area of about 31,100 square miles. Along its base it has Brunei on the southwest and the eastern division of Dutch Borneo on the south east. A large part of the terrain is covered with jungle, but the interior is mountainous and includes the highest land on the island. The population was officially estimated in 1911 at 208,183, of which 26,000 were Chinese, 5,700 Filipinos, 5,500 East Indians, 1,600 Malays and 355 Europeans. Of the 170,000 natives, the Dusuns numbered about 88,000; the Muruts, 25,300, and the Bajaus, 22,600. The chief town is Sandaken, with a population of about 6,000. The territory is under the jurisdiction of the British North Borneo Company, and is held under grants from the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu. It is administered by a governor resi dent in Borneo and a council of directors in London. Since 1888 the state has been under a protectorate of the British government. For purposes of administration the territory is di vided into five residencies, and these are sub divided into districts, each controlled by a jus tice of the court.
A railway 130 miles in length runs from a point on Brunei Bay northward along the coast for a short distance and then into the interior. There are a telegraph line and several wireless stations. Most of the trading is carried on through Singapore and Hongkong. The an nual tonnage of shipping entering the ports of the territory is about 290,000. For the year
1915 exports amounted to $4,109,425, and im ports to $2,488,785. The exports were princi pally: rubber, $1,306,771; tobacco, $1,311,234; timber, $461,925 ; coal, $14,096; cutch, $163,410; fish, $121,756; gum damar, $78,279; copra, $49, 835; rattan, $49,258; birds' nests, $43,877, and camphor, $30,453. The chief imports were: rice, flour and grain, $621,063; cloth, $283,190; provisions, $202,862; treasure, $201,384; iron ware, $126,630; tobacco, $107,501; machinery and vessels, $103,631; spirits and wine, $93,280; sugar, $85,690; opium, $65,956, and kerosene oil, $63,693. A very small amount of the foreign trade of Borneo reaches the United States: in 1915 the value of such exports was $17,364. To the Philippines the exports were valued at $58,277. Mai1 to or from the United States via Hongkong requires one month for transit; if via Singapore, two months.
Cabaton, A., 'Java and the Dutch East Indies' (London 1911) ; Furness, W. H., 'Home Life of the Borneo Head Hunt ers' (Philadelphia 1902) • Gould, S. B., and Bampfylde, A., 'History of Sarawak' (London 1909); Hose, C., and McDougall, W., 'The Pagan Tribes of Borneo' (London 1912) ; Molengraaff, G. A. F., 'Borneo-Expedition: Geological Explorations in Central Borneo' (2 vols., Leyden 1902) ; Walker, H. W., 'Wander ings among the South Sea Savages' (London 1909).