BUCHAREST, boo-ka-rest', or BUKA REST (Rumanian, Bucuresci, that is, ((city of joys), formerly the chief city of Wallachia, now the capital of the kingdom of Rumania, on the Dimbovitza, 37 miles from its mouth. It is the most populous city of southeastern Eu rope after Constantinople and Budapest, and is spoken of by the Rumanians as the Paris of the East. Besides being the seat of govern ment, Bucharest is the residence of a Greek archbishop. The houses are mostly of one story, built of brick, pointed externally, and have metal roofs. The streets are mostly nar row and crooked, the most important being the Boulevard, running from east to west, the Calea Victoriei, the Lipscani and the Karlsstrasse. There are statues to Joan Heliade-Radulescu, the father of Rumanian literature, George Lazar and others. Twelve bridges—five of iron and seven of stone— cross the Dimbovitza, a small, muddy stream that formerly caused a good deal of damage by inundations. From 1885 till 1896 extensive fortifications were erected, there being now 18 forts in the circle of defense. The inhabitants nearly all belong to the Greek Church. The churches are very numerous, but few of them are architecturally noteworthy, the chief being the metropolitan cathedral, built in 1656, restored in 1834, and standing on a hill, and the Roman Catholic cathedral, built in 1875-84, one of the chief or naments of the city. Bucharest has a univer sity, and connected with it a public library and a museum of natural history and antiquities. There are four lyceums, two gymnasia, some technical and military schools, a conservatory of music, girls' schools and other educational institutions. There are a few fine public build ings, of which the most conspicuous is the royal palace, recently rebuilt; among the others being the new Palace of Justice, the National Theatre, the Athenmum, the post-office and several fine hotels. What chiefly distinguishes Bucharest is
the magnificence of the public gardens. There is a mixture in the population of eastern habits, with European civilization among the upper classes. The manufactures comprise iron goods, earthenware, refined petroleum, brandy, army supplies, textiles, leather, linen, soap, paper, beer, etc., but they are of no great importance. There is an active trade, Bucharest being an entrepot both for the kingdom of Rumania and for adjacent countries. It imports manufac tured goods and exports grain, wool, honey, wax, tallow and cattle, the produce of the coun try. In 1698, when it became the capital of Wallachia, it was only a village. It was pil laged by the Serbians in 1716; taken by the Russians in 1769 and 1806; occupied by them again in 1828-29 and 1853-54; by the Aus trians in 1774, 1789 and 1854; was partly de stroyed by fire in 1847, and in 1862 became the capital of Rumania, which had just been formed from the union of Moldavia and Wallachia. In 1866 a revolt in Bucharest dethroned the first ruler of united Rumania. The partition of the captured parts of European Turkey was settled among the Christian states of the Bal kans by the Treaty of Bucharest, 10 Aug. 1913. Peace congresses were held here 1772-73 and in 1812, and in 1886 peace was concluded here between Serbia and Bulgaria. Pop. 338,109. See BUCHAREST, PEACE OF; BUCHAREST, UNI VERSITY OF.