CAMBRIDGE, England, capital of the county of Cambridge, is situated on the Cam, about 56 miles north by east by rail from Lon don. It is a municipal and parliamentary bor ough, the seat of a celebrated university (see Dad/MIDGE, UNIVERSITY or), and has a large agricultural market.
The geological formation of Cambridge and the surrounding district con sists chiefly of clay. The following strata are to be found— Chalk, Marl, Cambridge Green sand, Gault, Kimeridge Clay, Oxford Clay, Ampthill Clay, Cherryhinton Chalk and some recent alluvium which borders the rivers and tributaries, consisting of peat, sandy loam, etc. The town is made up of three •main thorough fares, two running north and south and the other east and west.
Public Buildings, Libraries, city possesses a Guildhall, including municipal build mgs, law courts and public free library. There is also a spacious corn exchange, attended weekly by buyers from all parts of the United Kingdom, and a cattle market. Addenbrooke's Hospital is a noted institution, connected as it is with the Cambridge University Medical School. Cambridge was one of the first towns to establish a public free library, which now com prises a central library and three branches with a collection of upwards of 50,000 volumes.
Cambridge is fortunate in the number of its ancient churches, two of which are worthy of mention. The church of Saint Benedict's is the oldest, being of pre-Conquest date. It possesses a tower in the Saxon style of architecture. That of the Holy Sepulchre or °Round Church° is one of four round churches in England, and was probably in exist ence about the year 1130. The largest parish church is that of Saint Mary the Great (the University church), built in the perpendicular style. Other churches of interest are the Abbey (early English, 13th century), Saint Edward (rebuilt in the 14th century with the exception of the tower which is a work of the 12th cen tury), Saint Michael (13th century), Trinity (about 1274), Saint Mary the Less (1340), Saint Botolph (14th century) and Saint Peter, which has examples of 12th century architec ture. The history of nonconformity in Cam
bridge dates from the year 1457, and it is now well represented by its churches. The Roman Catholics have a fine church built in the early decorated style. It was commenced in 1887, through a donation from Yolande Marie Louise Lyne-Stephens. Of theologians Cambridge was the birthplace of Jeremy Taylor; it was at Cam bridge the Rev. Charles Simeon founded the evangelical school of the Church of England, and at the same period Robert Hall, the great Baptist preacher, attracted large congregations. Johnny Stittle, the hedger, occupied a unique position at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, drawing a large congrega tion from both town and University. Thomas Hobson was famous as a carrier. He is said to have been the first to let out horses for hire, and the originator of the proverb "Hobson's Choice.° Cambridge has 20 public ele mentary schools, including higher grade schools, among which we may note the Perse gram mar schools, founded by Dr. Stephen Perse in 1615. The Wesleyans are represented in education by the Leys school, the Roman Cath olics by Saint Edmund's House, the Presby terians by Westminster College, and more re cently the Congregationalists have removed from Cheshunt, Herts, to Cambridge, prelitni nary to the erection of a new college. Homer ton College has about 150 female students in training for educational duties.
The railway companies which have connections at Cambridge are the Great Eastern, the Great Northern, the Midland and the London North Western.
Recreation Cambridge is for tunate in its number of common lands and recreation grounds, numbering in all and having a total area of 300 acres. Of the recreation grounds Parker's Piece Is a noted cricket and football ground, where all the University matches were played, until they purchased their own grounds.