CANDIDATE, an applicant for an office, from the Latin candidates, "white-robed," be cause, among the Romans, a man who solicited a public office appeared in a white garment toga candida — and wore this during his can didature, which lasted for two years. In the first year the candidates delivered s es to the people, or had them delivered After this year they requested the magistrate to enter their names on the list of candidates for the office sought for. Before this was done the previous life of the candidate was subjected to a scrutiny in the Senate, after the praetor or consul had received his name. If the Senate accepted him he was permitted to offer himself on the day of election as a candidate. The formula by which permission was granted was “Rationem habebo, renuntiabcP; if he was not accepted he received the answer, uRationem non habebo; non renuntiabo.° The tribunes often opposed a candidate who had been accepted by the Senate. The morals of the aspirants, in the purer ages of the republic, were always severely examined. In the later period of the republic, nobody could obtain an office if he was not present and if he had not offered himself on three market days. On these days the candi dates tried to insinuate themselves into the favor of the people. They went from house to house (ambitio, whence the word ambition), shook hands with everybody whom they met (prensatio), addressed each one by his name, for which purpose they generally had a nomen clator them, who whispered the names of those whom they met into their ear. Cicero, therefore, calls the candidates natio officio sissima. They placed themselves on market
days in elevated places in order to be seen. On the day of election they did the same. Favorites of the people accompanied them (deductoes); some of their suite (divisores) distributed money among the people, which, though pro hibited, was done publicly. Interpretes were employed to bargain with the people, and the money was deposited in the hands of sequestres. Sometimes a number of candidates united into parties (coitiones), in order to defeat the en deavors of the others. At last the grounds on which each candidate rested his claims to the office were read, and the °tribes° delivered their votes. The successful candidate then sacrificed to the gods in the capitol. To oppose a can didate was called ei refragari; to support him, suffragari, or suffragatores esse. In the early Church newly-baptized Christians were called candidates, on account of the white robes worn by them for a certain period after celebrating the rite. The word °candidate') is also used by Protestants to designate a theologian who, hav ing finished his studies at a university, is wait ing for an appointment in the Church. At present it means, in English-speaking countries, an applicant for any office whatever. (See Con VENTION, POLITICAL; CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT). Consult the treatise known as (Quinti Ciceroms de Petitione Consulatus ad Marcum Tullium Fratrem' (printed with Cicero's letters); Greenidge, 'Roman Public Life' ( London 1901).