CAYUGAS ("swamp-dwellers,)> possibly in reference to their cranberry swamps) a tribe of North American Indians, forming the small est of the original Five Nations of the Iroquois, and according to Onondaga tradition, the last to join the confederacy; whence it was called "The Youngest Brother?) The tribe was not in ferior in energy and original genius, however; several of the chiefs were men of superior ability, as Karistagea, or Steeltrap; and Tahgah jute, or "Logan," the son of one of its sachems. The latter will be ever remembered not only for the pathetic speech attributed to him, but for his high personal qualities. Nor were the Cay ugas inferior in fighting prowess; in one of their Virginia campaigns they seem to have de stroyed the tribe of Tuteloes, and incorporated with their own tribe the remnant who were not slain. They were friendly to the whites, how ever, and bore a good reputation. They were located along the Cayuga Lake in central New York, and in the valley of its outlet, the Seneca River. At the outbreak of the Revolution, they joined the Mohawks and Senecas in alliance with the British against the Americans, and shared in the devastation of the property of the patriots during Sullivan's campaign; the most of them settled in Canada with the other Iro quois, 200 remaining in New York apparently around Niagara. In 1789 they made their first
formal cession of territory to the whites, con firming it by a treaty at Fort Stanwix in 1790; in 1795, by a treaty at Cayuga Bridge, they ceded their great reserve in the lake basin and the river valley, retaining only one of four miles square. For these releases they received large money annuities, which they used largely for liquor. In 1806 all the remainder left the reservation and emigrated westward or north ward; some joining their brethren in Canada, some going to Sandusky, Ohio, others settling among the Senecas near Buffalo. There are at present about 1,300 in all, the bulk of them at the Six Nations on Grand River, Ontario, some with the Oneidas in Wisconsin, about 170 with the Senecas in New York State and others with the Senecas in Indian Territory.