CHIMES. A set of bells from 3 to 12 in number, generally of considerable weight, tuned to the notes of the diatonic scale with sometimes one or two additional half tones. In England these are most often hung "free,* i.e., so as to swing, and then are called also a urine or °peal.° A set of bells tuned to the chromatic scale, with a compass of three or more octaves and hung "fixed" or "dead," i.e., so as not to swing, is called a carillon. Tunes are played automatically on chimes where the bells are hung fixed and on carillons by a revolving drum and hammer mechanism like that of a music box. A chime hung fixed is also played• by a chimer, who with his hands operates the levers of a chiming-stand, one lever for each bell. A carillon is also played by a carillon neur who uses both hands and feet on key boards similar to those of an organ, connected with the clappers. In England a method of playing upon bells hung free, called (change ringing," has long been in vogue. In this method each bell is separately swung by means of a rope by an individual ringer. The bells are thus made to sound one after another in mathematically defined changingsequences un til they come back to the Order' ik which they started. This in complicated changes often in volves several hours of ringing.' Great ex pertness is shown by companies df men in this art but the product of their skill is a regularly developed mosaic of sounds rather than music. On chimes only a few siinple tunes can be ac curately played. On a carillon, however, the chromatic characteristic combined as it is with the extended compass and range in the size of the bells— from several tons to a few pounds —enables the master of its keyboard to play not only the notes of a great variety of music but to interpret sentiment, and produce effects beyond the power of any other musical instru ment. While England, because of its many bells, has been poetically called "the ringing isle," bell music has been still more a character istic of Belgium and Holland and French Flanders through centuries. There carillons, and the great church and tows hall towers which contain them, are maintained entirely at the public expense, and the bell music of folk songs, patriotic airs and national hymns, heard day and night and on market and feast days, is a considerable feature in the life of the people.
Summer evening concerts in the Low Countries when the city carillonneur plays on the carillon clavier always have brought hundreds together to listen. Such concerts by Josef Denyn, the unrivalled master of the art, on the finest carillon in the world at Mechlin, Belgium, 45 bells, attracted thousands before the Great War. Antwerp's carillon then numbered 47 bells, Ghent's 52, Bruges' 47, Courtrai's 49, Mons' 47. In all there were recently about 70 carillons in Belgium and northern France In Holland there are also about 70• among the finest are Middleburg, 41 bells; Delft, 40; Amsterdam (Palace), 37; Utrecht, 42; Arnhem, 47; The Hague, 37 and Appingedam, 25. Carillon de struction by Germany has undoubtedly been great. The bells of Ypres, 44; of Termonde, 40 and of Saint Peter's at Louvain, and of Arras are destroyed, and probably many or possibly all others in the occupied regions. The oldest chimes in the United States are those of Christ Church, Philadelphia; Christ Church, Boston; and Trinity Church, New York. California University, Berkeley, has 12 fine bells. Among English Carillons are Cattistook, 35 and Eaton Hall, 28 bells. In Ireland, Queenstown Cathe dral has a carillon of 42 bells — the finest bells in the United Kingdom. Where chimes and carillons originated is not known. Tradition takes us back to the 12th century and the abbey of Egmond in Holland. But it is not until early in the 16th century that authentic records, principally in certain Low Country towns, ap pear. Louvain had 8 bells in 1525; Hoorn, 10, in 1528; Oudenburg 10, in 1539; Alkmaar 11, in 1541; Ghent 16, in 1543. Thereafter the de velopment of this musical instrument was rapid. D. G. Rossetti, Thackeray, Stevenson, George Macdonald, Thomas Hardy, Victor Hugo, Georges Rodenbach, DeAmicis and others have written of carillon music. Longfellow's of Bruges' is especially well known. Consult Rice, William Gorham, 'Carillons of Belgium and Holland' (New York and London 1914, 1915); 'The Carillon in Literature' (New York and London 1916); Robinson, F. E., 'Among the Bells' (London 1909); Starmer, W. W., 'Royal Academy of Music Lectures' (London 1916) ; Van der Ven, D. J., Torens Zinger' (Amsterdam 1917); Loosjes, A., (De Toren muziek' (Amsterdam 1917).