CIENFUEGOS, Cuba, city in the prov ince of Santa Clara, on the south side of the island. Its harbor, which is one of the finest in the West Indies, Was visited by Co lumbus on his first voyage, and was surveyed by Ocampo in 1508. The town was settled by refugees from Santo Domingo in 1819. Here the revolutionist Narciso Lopez planned to make his first demonstration on 4 July 1847. (See also Cum). In recent years its commercial progress has been rapid, and it is now the second seaport of Cuba. Some of the sugar estates in the neighborhood are very large, and conducted on the most approved modern plan ; in fact, Cien fuegos is the centre of the sugar trade on the Caribbean coast. It is a city of attractive, well shaded streets, and substantially built houses. One of its plazas is the largest in Cuba. Among the principal buildings are the governor's house, market, railroad station and military and gov ernment hospitals. Water from the aqueduct is supplied to 42 per cent of the dwellings; from wells, to 47 per cent; from cisterns, to 7 per cent. There are social clubs, a theatre, etc. The city is lighted by gas and electricity. The climate from May to November cannot be highly commended, the air having an excess of mois ture, and the temperature ranging from 75° to 98° F. The winter months, however, are very
agreeable, winds from the north prevailing, and the temperature ranging from 60° to F. during the day, with cooler nights. Cienfuegos is connected by rail with Sagua la Grande, on the opposite coast; with Santa Clara, the west ern terminus of the Cuba Company's main line to Santiago; with Havana, etc. By steamer it is in regular communication with New York, as well as with ports of the southern coast of Cuba from Santiago to Batabano. The census taken during the first American intervention showed: number of inhabitants engaged in trade and transportation, 3,065; in agriculture, fisheries and mining, 901; in personal service, 4,004; in manufactures and mechanical in dustries, 3,221; in professional service, 294; without gainful occupation, 18,553; total school attendance 3,832; number of persons able to read, 18,052, or 60 per cent—a higher percentage in this respect being found among Cuban cities only in Havana (66per cent) and Puerto Principe (62 per cent). Foreign-born, 11.6 per cent of the city's population. The white people numbered 19,220; negroes, 3,068; mixed, 7,401; and Chinese, 349. Population, 30,100 in 1907; (est.) 31,000 for the city proper in 1916.