COMBINATION, Industrial, in law, a union of individuals, companies or corporations formed for the purpose of accomplishing a particular object or purpose. In the United States a combination is not unlawful in itself, though it becomes so if it seeks to obtain its ends in an unlawful manner or by unlawful acts. Combinations may be divided into two general classes, those formed by employees or 41abor,D and those formed by employers or '(capital." Combinations formed by employees, or labor, generally bear the designation of unions. The purpose of a union is to better the condition of its members in relation to the work in which they are engaged, by securing higher wages, less working hours, different methods of doing the work and similar changes. A union generally tries to enforce its demands by striking, or threatening to strike. A strike is a combination effected by employees whereby at a prearranged time they all stop worlcing unless their demands are granted. A strike is usually organized through a union.
A boycott is a combination to cause a loss to a particular person by restraining others from doing business with that person. It is often so conducted that the person is affected socially as well as in his business. When a boy cott has been declared against a person, any one having either business or social relations with that person is also boycotted.
When the objects of such combinations are effected in a peaceful and lawful manner there is no legal means by which they can be inter fered with; but it generally happens that when a number of worlang-people strike there is a breach of contract, or a conspiracy, in which case there is a legal redress. The usual action
is for the injured party to proceed in equity and ask for an injunction restraining the for mer employees from committing certain acts. Sometimes damages are asked for, and it makes no difference what the status is when the cause is heard, as damages can be recovered for acts committed during a strike, although the strike may have ended long before the demand for damages.
Combinations formed by employers,. or capi tal,•are usually known as trusts. Trusts are generally formed with the object of regulating the supply or price of a product, or both, or for the purpose of reducing expenses or competi tion.
It has been found very difficult to frame a law which will be effective against all the different arrangements under which a trust can do busi ness. The State courts have no jurisdiction outside the limits of the State to which they belong, and it is very seldom that a trust would be formed whose business would be con fined to any one State. The Federal govern ment has passed several anti-trust laws, and up to the present time the most effective way of dealing with this class of combinations is by laws passed under the clause in the Federal Constitution (Art. I, § 8, cl. 3), which provides that Congress shall have power °to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes.° See BOYCOTT; STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS; TRUST COMPANIES. Consult Jenks,. T., 'Trusts and Industrial Combinations> (in Bulletin of De partment of Labor, No. 29, July 1900).