COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOT, the earliest complete polyglot edition of the Bible compiled and printed in Alcola. It was made by seven scholars under the auspices and at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes. It was begun in 1502, and finished in 1517, but was not actually published till 1522. It consists of six folio volumes. In the Old Testament, on the left hand page, are the Hebrew original, the Latin Vulgate and the Greek Septuagint; and on the right hand page, the Vulgate, . the Septuagint, with Latin translation above, and the Hebrew, with primitives belonging to that language on the outer margin. At the lower part of the page are two columns used for a Chaldee paraphrase and a Latin translation. The Greek Testament, constituting part of the Compluten sian Polyglot, was the first complete edition of that part of Scripture printed.
a general title for all classes of machines that compose or set either type or matrices, arranging them in lines and columns for printing. There are four prominent types of these: (1) Those that set matrices in line and cast therefrom a solid line or slug, as the Linotype, Intertype, Linograph and Monoline; (2) those that cast and set type, as the Monotype and Graphotype; (3) those that set and distribute ordinary founders' type, these being the only ones properly styled type setting machines, as the Thorne (or Unitype), McMillan, Empire, Dow, Fraser, Kastenbein, etc.; and (4) those that impress male dies into soft matenal and cast lines from these impres sions.
Historically, the type-setting machine comes first, William Church of Connecticut devising a machine, which was patented in England in 1822, that was the first practical effort in this direction. He employed a keyboard, and stored the type in channels. From 1842 to 1872 there were 57 United States patents granted on com posing machines, and from 1822 to 1872 a like number were patented in Great Britain. The most noteworthy of these were the Mitchell and the Alden machines in the United States, and the Kastenbein, Hattersley and Fraser machines in England. These machines all came into use
during the period between 1853 and 1872, and a few may still be found in operation in England. The difficulty with all of them seems to have been that they required several persons to operate each machine, and that the consequent cost was very nearly the same as for composi tion by hand. From 1872 up to 1880 there were invented or constructed over 50 different machines designed to supersede the compositor, practically all of which failed of commercial success. During the period between 1880 and 1890 the Thorne type-setting machine, originat ing in Connecticut, came into considerable use, being employed by many newspapers through out the United States, and beginning to find a market abroad. During this period the Burr and McMillan machines also found some sale in the United States, and the Fraser, Hattersley and Kastenbein in England and Germany. In 1898 the Thorne was remodeled and renamed the Simplex, and later the Unitype.
Of all the machines devised for setting founders' type, the Unitype was most success ful, but its manufacture was practically dis continued about 1914. The types are contained in 90 channels, set radially in the periphery of an upright cylinder. As the operator fingers the keys, the types c,alled for are pushed out of the lower ends of the channels and carried around on a circular raceway to the point where they are brought into line. A second operator draws to him f rom the composed type thus emerging enough to form a line of the de sired length. This he puts in the galley and justifies, or spaces out to length, by hand. The leads, or spaces between lines, are also inserted by this operator. The type is distributed by an upper grooved cylinder, this being per formed automatically in the later machines. In the last models of this machine one operator did (or could do) all the work.