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Constantinople

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CONSTANTINOPLE, General Cc:aliens of. The most important of these ecclesiastical councils were: the First, attended by 150 East ern bishops, and held in 381 is reckoned as the second ecumenical council of the Church, the first being that of Nicma in Bithynia, 325. Its president was at first Miletius, patriarch of Antioch, and after him Gregory of Nazianzus, then archbishop of Constantinople. The council, comprising only Eastern bishops, was not reputed ecumenical till after the Western Church had approved its decrees by express or tacit consent. The council defined the rived of the Church as opposed to the heresy of Arius and kindred heresies growing out of it, among them the heresy of Macedoruus who denied the godhead of the Holy Spirit; hence to the creed called of Nicaa this council added the clause, "and in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and life-giver who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is together worshipped and glorified, who spakc by the prophets?) Not till a later date was added "and the Son" (in Latin filioque) to declare the procession of the Spirit from the Son also. The Second Council of Constantinople—the fifth ecumenical — was held in 553, with 165 bishops, all Eastern. The heresies it condemned had relation to the heresy of Nestorius, who held that there were in Christ two persons, a human and a divine. This council, at first regarded as Oriental, was later accepted as ecumenical. Vigilius, the Pope, refused to attend, and was excommunicated. The council was accepted by the emperor, and was generally received in the East, but was repudiated in the West. A schism resulted which lasted until the synod of AquiIola about 700. The Third General Council of Constan

tinople, held in 680, was presided over by legates of the bishop of Rome, Pope Agatho. The errors it condemned were those of the Monothelites (q.v.). It anathematized all Mon othelites living or dead, especially Sergius and his successors, the former Pope Honorius and Macarius, the patriarch of 'Antioch. The banned sect fled to Syria where they formed the sect of the Maronites. It was the Sixth ecu menical council. The Quinisext Synod (692) was regarded as supplementary to the fifth and sixth ecumenical councils, Its work was legis lative and its decisions were set forth in 102 canons. The synods of 754 and 815 set fort* decrees against image worship. The Fourth General Council of Constantinople (the eighth ecumenical), held in 860, was convoked for the purpose of ending the schism then separating the Eastern from the Western Church. This council decreed the deposition; of 'Plsosins; the usurping patriarch of Constantinople, and the restoration of Ignatius the rightful patriarcl•; but both this decree and the measures proposed by the council for reconciling the Eastern with the Western churches were repudiated by the Greek Church; and the schism grew wider and has continued, with an interval of communion now and again till the present time. Consult Mansi (Vol. III, pp. Vol. IX, pp. 24 106, pp. 109-922; Vol. XII, pp. 575 seq.; XIII, pp. 210 seq; XIV, pp. 111 seq., 787 seq.; XV, pp. 143-476; XVI, pp. 1-500; XVII, pp. 66-186, 365-530).