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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 7

Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue, The Most Im Portant Supporting Tissue Of The Body, Derived Like Bone And Cartilage From The Mesenchyme Of The Embryo. It Is Made Up Of Cells, Which Are Relatively Scanty, Fibres And An Intercellular Ground Substance Secreted By The Cells. The Cells May Be Amceboid (in Embryonic Tissue), ...

Consalvi
Consalvi, Kon-sarve, Ercole, Italian Statesman And Cardinal: B. Toscanella, 8 June 1757; D. Rome, 24 Jan. 1824. Having In 1797 Entered The Public Service Of The Court Of Rome In An Humble Capacity, He Was Four Years Later One Of The 12 Auditors Of The Rota, A Commis Sion In ...

Consanguinity
Consanguinity, Relationship Of Per Sons Descended From The Same Ancestry Or Common Stock. Consanguinity May Be Either Direct (known Also As Lineal) Or Collateral. Consanguinity Is Direct When The Relationship Is That Which Exists Between Ascendants And Descendants, As Grandfather, Father, Son. It Is Collateral When The Relationship Is That ...

Consciousness
Consciousness (ger. Bewusstsein; Fr.. Conscience; Lt. Conscienza) Is The Term By Which Psychology Distinguishes One Of The Two Great Categories Into Which Experience Falls, Viz., Mental Experience, From The Other, Physical Experience. The One Division, Mental Experi Ence, Includes All Facts That May Be Construed As Subjective, The Other Division ...

Conscription
Conscription, The Enlisting Of Men For Military Service By A Compulsory Levy, At The Pleasure Of The Government. It Is Dis Tinguished From Recrttiting, Or Voluntary En Listment. Conscription Was Enforced In The States Of Ancient Greece, Most Especially In Sparta. The Name Is Derived From The Roman Military Constitution. ...

Consecration
Consecration, An Act By Which Mate Rial Things And Persons Are Dedicated To Sacred Uses And Sacred Ministries. Celebrations Of Rites Of Ccmsecration Are Traced Back To The Earliest Historic Periods Of Assyrian, Chaldatc, Egyptian And Hebraic Civilizations. The Word Consecration Is Also Used In The Roman Cath Olic Ritual ...

Conservation Of Natural Re
Conservation Of Natural Re Sources. The Conservation Movement, First Clearly Started In The United States In 1908, Aims To Protect And To Develop The Fullest Per Manent Usefulness Of The Great National Re Sources — Forests, Lands, Minerals And Waters Whose Use Has Heretofore Been Accompanied By Such Great Waste. ...

Conservative
Conservative, As Applied To One Of The Two Great Parties In English Politics, Was First Used By J. W. Croker In An Article In The Quarterly Review For January 1830, And Was By Macaulay, In The Edinburgh Review For 1832, Referred To As A Anew Cant Word?' Con Servative Accordingly ...

Consideration
Consideration, A Legal Term Covering The Principle Governing Contracts And Signify Ing Something In The Way Of Price Or Compen Sation Whidi May Be Of Value To The Contractor Or Of Detriment To The Contractee. In Law No Contract Is Valid If It Does Not Expressly Stip Ulate The Amount ...

Consolidation Of Schools
Consolidation Of Schools, The Term Used When Two Or More Rural School Dis Tricts Are Made Into One District, One School In One Building Replacing Two Or More Small Schools In Several Buildings. In Most Districts This Includes The Transportation Of Pupils To The School At The Public Expense, Either ...

Consort
Consort, He, She Or That Which Shares The Same Lot With Another; A Companion; A Part Ner; An Intimate Associate; A Wife Or Husband; Applied In A Modern Sense Chiefly To Persons Of Royal Degree Or Position, In Countries Where Women Are Able To Reign; As A Queen Consort; A ...

Constable
Constable, John, English Pastoral Painter: B. East Bergholt, Suffolk, 11 June 1776; D. London, 1 April 1837. His Father Was A Wealthy Miller, And Was At First Desirous That His Son Should Enter The Church, And Then On Finding Him Disinclined To This Career„ Proposed That He Should Follow His ...

Constable_2
Constable (lat. Comes Stabuti, Count Of The Stable=master Of The Horse). 1. A Great Noble Under The Later Roman Empire, And So Down Through The Middle Ages; Usually The Commander-in-chief Of The Army; In France Also Of The Navy, And The Chief Subject In The State, When Richelieu Abolished The ...

Constance
Constance, General Council Of, The 16th Ecumenical Council Of The Church, Was Held At Constance In Switzerland; It Was Presided Over By Pope John Xxiii, In Its Opening Ses Sion 5 Nov. 1414, And Was Dissolved In Its 45th Session 1418. It Was Called At The Suggestion Of The Emperor ...

Constance_2
Constance, Lake (anciently Lacus Brigantinus ; German Boden See), In Central Europe, Forming A Common Centre, In Which Switzerland And The Territories Of Baden, Win- Temberg, Bavaria And Austria Meet. Length, Northwest To Southeast, 40 Miles; Greatest Breadth, About 10% Miles; Area, 204 Square Miles; Greatest Depth, 827 Feet; 1,309 ...

Constant De Rebecque
Constant De Rebecque, Henri Benjamin, French Politician And Author: B. Lausanne, Switzerland, 25 Oct. 1767; D. Paris, 8 Dec. 1830. His Mother Died At His Birth And His Father Was An Officer In The Military Service Of Holland. He Was Brought Up At Brussels At The Home Of Mme. De ...

Constantine I
Constantine I, Flavius Valerius Au Relius Constantinus, Called The Gre.at, Roman Emperor B. Naissus, In Mcesia (serbia), 27 Feb. 274; D. Nicomedia, 22 May 337. He Was The Son Of The Emperor Constantinus Chlorus, And After The Death Of His Father Was Chosen Emperor By The Soldiery, In Tlie Year ...

Constantinople
Constantinople, General Cc:aliens Of. The Most Important Of These Ecclesiastical Councils Were: The First, Attended By 150 East Ern Bishops, And Held In 381 Is Reckoned As The Second Ecumenical Council Of The Church, The First Being That Of Nicma In Bithynia, 325. Its President Was At First Miletius, Patriarch ...

Constantinople
Constantinople, Turkey (othe City Of Constantine), Called Istambol Try The Turks (corrupted Into Stamboul), From The Greek Eis Tin Polin, To The City; In Official Turkish Always Oconstantiniehp: Capital Of The Ottoman Empire, Situated At The Junction Of The Bosporus And The Sea Of Marmora, In Lat. 40° 0' 16" ...

Constellations
Constellations (lat. Con, (to Gether," Stella, Ustar))). From The Earliest Times Men Have Formed Certain Groups Of Bright Stars Into Constellations. Thus The Names Of The 12 Zodiacal Constellations Are Prehistoric. The Same Is True Of Many Of Those Clustering About The North Pole Of The Heavens. Quite A Number ...

Constipation
Constipation, A Condition In Which The Normal Number Of Evacuations From The Intestinal Canal Does Not Take Place, Or One In Which The Farces Are Extremely Hard And Painful In Passing. Constipation Affects All Ages, Being Prevalent In Childhood, Youth, Adult Life And Old Age. It Can For The Most ...

Constitution
Constitution, The Fundamental Law Of A State, Whether It Be A Written Instrument Of A Certain Date, As That Of The United States Of America, Or An Aggregate Of Laws And Usages Which Have Been Formed In The Course Of Ages, Like The English Constitution. Its Primitive Meaning Is That ...

Constitution
Constitution, Framing Of The. When The Resistance To British Rule In America Began, Independence Was Not Its Aim, And Pro Visional Governments Only Were Established In The Several Colonies, Temporarily To Take The Place Of The English Colonial Governments, Which Had Been Suppressed. The Several Colo Nies Jointly Instituted The ...

Constitution Of The United
Constitution Of The United States, The Governing Instrument Of The United States Of America, Adopted In 1787, When It Took The Place Of The Articles Of Confedera Tion. (for Details Of Its Adoption See Consti Tution, Framing Of The). Political Discussion Of The Tiind Played A Much Greater Part In ...

Constitution_2
Constitution, The, Or Old Iron Sides (from The Slightness Of The Injury Her Hull Received In The Fight With The Guerriere), One Of The Most Famous Vessels Of The Amer Ican Navy, Now Fixed In Boston Harbor. She Was A 44-gun Frigate Of 1,576 Tons; One Of The Six War ...

Constitutional Amendments
Constitutional Amendments, History Of. As Shown In A Preceding Article (see Constitution, Framing Of The), Very Few Of The States Lilced The Constitution As A Form Of Government At All, And Fewer Still Were Satisfied With It As An Instrument North Carolina Had Refused To Ratify Without Amend Ments And ...

Consubstantiation
Consubstantiation, The Doctrine That In The Holy Eucharist The Real 'body And Blood Of Christ Are Present And Are Of The Same Substance With The Bread And Wine. The Doctrine Of Transubstantiation Is That When The Words Of Consecration Are Pronounced By The Priest, The Bread And Wine Are Substantially ...

Consuelo
Consuelo, Which Appeared From The Hand Of George Sand In 1842-43, A Fantastic Tale With A Number Of Genuinely Historical Charac Ters, Reflects The Innumerable Theories Of Social Reform And The Mystical, Quasi-philosophical Ideas Then In The Air. George Sand Was At That Time Under The Influence Of The Religious ...

Consul
Consul, The Title Given To The Two C.hief Magistrates Of The Ancient Roman Republic And To The Three Supreme Magistrates Of The First French Republic During The Last Five Years Of Its Existence. In Present Usage The Term Indicates An Official Who Resides In A Foreign Seaport Or Other Commercial ...

Consular Service Of The
Consular Service Of The United States. The First Consul Of The United States Was Appointed 9 Dec. 1780, Al Though The Commissioners Of The United States In Europe Had Exercised Consular Functions In Addition To Their Diplomatic Duties Prior To That Time. Five Years Afterward Congress Declared By A Joint ...

Consumers League
Consumers' League, An Organization Intended ((to Promote Better Conditions Among The Workers)) By Encouraging The Purchase Of Goods Made And Sold Under Proper Conditions. The Work Of The Organization Is Based Upon The Principle That The Purchase Of An Article Tends To Create A Demand For That Article, And That ...

Consumption
Consumption. There Have Been Two Meanings Given By Economists To The Term Con Sumption Of Wealth. By One Group It Has Been Made To Include Any Utilization Of Wealth In Which The Wealth Is Used Up Or Destroyed In The Process. By Another Group It Means Only Such Utilization As ...

Contagion
Contagion. Before The Time When The Microscope And Other Laboratory Aids Showed The Actual Causes Of Many Disease Processes In The Human — And Other Animals — Body, The Word Contagion Was Surrounded By Much Mys Tery. At The Present Time The Term "com Municable" Is Preferable. Thus Communicable Diseases ...

Contarini
Contarini, The Name Of A Noble Family Of Venice, One Of The 12 That Elected The First Doge. The Most Important Members Were Domenico, Doge Of Venice From 1043 To 1071 Or 1073. He Rebuilt Grado, And Reduced The City Of Zara, Which Had Revolted. During His Reign The Rebuilding ...

Contes Bleus
Contes Bleus, Taint' Hie' (etlue Tales). The (contes Bleus' Of Edouard Laboulaye Are Stories, Mainly Fairy Tales, From Various Sources, Including The Invention Of The Author, Which Owe Their Charm Not Merely To The Material Of Folk-lore That They Contain And To The Stamp Of The Popular Imagination That It ...

Contes De Dies
Contes De Dies, Kont' De Fa' (fairy Tales). The (contes De Fees,' Or Fairy Tales, Published In 1697 Under The Name Of °perrault Fils," Who Was Then Only 10 Years Old, Vvere Written By His Father, The Academician Charles Perrault, Better Lcnown Through His Controversy With Boileau About The Relative ...

Continent
Continent. A Definition Of Continent Based On The Origin And Development Of Land Masses Is Not Possible In The Present State Of Our Knowledge, And About All That Can Be Done Is To Define A Continent As A Very Large Body Of Land. Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Asia ...

Continental Navy
Continental Navy. During The Summer And Fall Of 1775, The British Attempts To Subdue Resistance In The Colonies On Land Was Supplemented By Harrying Their Shipping And Coasts By Sea. Several Merchant Vessels Were Made Prizes In Violation Of Law. Glou Cester Was Fired On, And Bristol Bombarded To Obtain ...

Continental System
Continental System, A Plan De Vised By Napoleon To Exclude Great Britain From All Intercourse With The Continent Of Eu Rope And Thus Compelling Her To Acknowledge The Maritime Law As Established At The Peace Of Utrecht. The History Of The Continental System Began With The Famous Decree Of Berlin ...

Continuation Schools
Continuation Schools, The Term Applied To Those Systems Of Training Which Are Adapted To People Already At Work In Business Or Industry, Especially For Girls And Boys Be Tween The Ages Of 14 And 18. The Original Pur Pose Of The Schools Was To Provide That General Education Of Which ...

Continuous Voyage
Continuous Voyage. The Doctrine Of Continuous Voyage In International Law Was Invented By Lord Stowell In The Early Part Of The 19th Century To Meet The Case Of Neutral Vessels Which, In The War Between Great Britain And France, Endeavored To Evade The Rule Pro Hibiting Neutrals From Engaiging In ...

Contorniati
Contorniati, Ici5n-tor-ne-i'te, Ancient Medals Which Have Occupied The Attention Of Antiquarians For A Long Time, And, On Account Of Their Rarity, Are Highly Esteemed In Cabinets. They Are Formed Of A Thin Plate Of Metal (not Of Two Different Sorts, As Is Often Supposed) With A Flat Impression. They Differ ...

Contour
Contour, Kon'toor, The Outline Or De Fining Line Of Any Figure Or Body; Also The Hori Zontal Outline Of Works Of Defense. When The Conformation Of The Ground Or Works Is. De Scribed By Contours Or Horizontal Sections, These Sections Are Taken At Some Fixed Vertical Interval From Each Other ...

Contract
Contract. Of The Positive Rules Obeyed By Men, In A Society Which Has Reached The Stage In Which We Live, The Greater Part Are Made By Contract; The Lesser Only Are Made By Imperative Law. Indeed, The Speculative And Philosophical Writers Of The 18th Century On Sociology And Politics, Under ...

Contract Labor
Contract Labor. Previous To 1::5, When On 26 February, The Contract Labor Law Was Passed By Congress, Employers Of Large Bodies Of Laborers Were Accustomed To Arrange With Their Agents Abroad For The Shipment To Tills Country Of Large Numbers Of An Ignorant, Servile Class Of Foreign Laborers—a Practice That ...

Contrast
Contrast. A Term Employed In Psy Chology To Denote An Enhancement Of A Sensory Experience Which Is Induced By Another Sensory Experience Of The Same Modality. Contrast Is Alleged By Some Psychologists To Occur Also In Feeling, And The Is Occasionally Loosely Employed As A Principle Of Explanation Of Cer ...

Contreras
Contreras, Battle Of (mexican Name, Padierna), In The Mexican War, 20 Aug. 1847. At Churubusco (q.v.), The Main Road South From The City Of Mexico Is Joined From The Southwest By Another, Running To The Hills Be Yond The Hamlet Of Contreras. This Is About 1.2 Miles From The City; ...

Convent
Convent (lat. Conventus), Primarily The Community Of Monks Or Nuns Occupying A Mon Astery, Priory Or Other Establishment Of A Mo Nastic Or Semi-monastic Character. But The Word Is Generally Used To Designate Rather The Establishment Itself, If It Is Simply A Cloister And Not A Considerable Monastery Or An ...

Convention
'convention, Political, An Assemblage Of Delegates Representing The Members Of A Political Party, Whose Leading Function Is To Nominate The Candidates Of That Party For Elec Tive Offices. In The Early Years Of The Nation Candidates Were Often Nominated At Mass Meet Ings, But The Growth Of The Country Necessitated ...

Conventions
Conventions, Constitutional, In The United States. Conventions For The Purpose Of Framing Constitutions Originated In The United States During The Early Years Of The Revolu Tion (1774-76) And The Development Of The Methods Employed May Be Divided Into Three Phases: First, The Framing Of Constitutions By The Regular Legislative Bodies ...

Conventions_2
Conventions, Revolutionary. Where The Legal Governments Of Countries Have Be Come The Very Grievances Against Which People Rebel, The Latter Have No Organ Of Expression Save Tumultuous Or Representative Popular Assemblies. The Latter Are Usually Called Con Ventions. Thus, In England, The Convention Parliament Of 1399 Deposed Richard. Ii And ...

Convergence
Convergence. Cases Often Occur Where Two Animals Of Different Groups, With A Different Ancestry And Affinities, But With Similar Habits, So Closely Resemble Each Other That Not Only The Ordinary Observer, But The Experienced Naturalist, Is Deceived By Their Close Resem Blance. A Familiar Example Is The Whale, Which So ...

Conveyancing
Conveyancing, A Term Including Both The Science And The Act Of Transferring Titles To Real Estate From One Person To Another. In Hebrew Times The Modern Form Of Transferring Land Was Well Known. In Rome Property Was Exchanged By Ceremonial Only Until The Reign Of Justinian When A Simple Legal ...

Conveyer
Conveyer, A Mechanism For Conveying Something, As Loose Material, From One Place And Depositing It At Another Place Distinguished In Mechanics From A Carrier Or Elevator. Con Veyers May Be Divided Into Four General Classes: Those That Operate With Endless Chains Or Belts; Those That Travel Along Cableways Or On ...

Convict Labor
Convict Labor. The Introduction Of Industry Into Prison Life, Apart From Its Use To Keep Penitentiaries In Good Order And Good Repair, Is A Product Of 19th Century Reforms. Isolated Cases It Is True Occurred Before. Mabil Lon, A Benedictine Monk Of The 17th Century, Urged A Cellular System Of ...

Convocation
Convocation, An Assembly Of The Clergy Of The Church Of England, Belonging Either To The Province Of Canterbury Or To That Of York, To Consult On Ecclesiastical Matters. In Both Provinces The Convocation Consists Of Two Houses, An Upper And A Lower. In The Former Sit The Bishops And In ...

Convulsions
Convulsions. A Convulsion Is A Vio Lent Involuntary Contraction Or Series Of Con Tractions Of The Voluntary Muscles. It Occurs In Many Conditions, Both Functional And Organic, Namely, Tetany, Hysteria, Epilepsy, Tetanus (lock Jaw), Uremia, Eclampsia And Chorea (saint Vitus Dance), Occurring Most Frequently In Infants. The Convulsion May Be ...

Conway
Conway, Moncure Daniel, American Clergyman And Author: B. Stafford County, Va., 17 March 18.32; D. New York 1907. He Was Graduated At Dickinson College In 1849, Entered The Methodist Ministry In 1850, And Later Studied At The Harvard Divinity School. He Had Be Come Imbued With Rationalistic Ideas And At ...

Cooicecry
Cooicecry, The Art Of Preparing Food For Eating. The Savage Does Little Or No Cooking; He Lives On Roots, Fruits, Insects And Raw Flesh, And When He Cannot Procure Food, He Twists His Belt Tighter And Tighter; The Barbarian Makes A Fire And Hunts And Fishes, But Still Eats Much ...

Cook
Cook, Albert Stanburrough, American Scholar: B. Montville, N. J., 6 March 1853. He Was Graduated At Rutgers College 1872, And Studied At Gottingen And Leipzig 1877-78, Lon Don And Jena 1881-82. He Was Professor Of English In The University Of California 18e2-'99, When He Became Professor Of The Same In ...

Cook_2
Cook, Frederick Albert, American Physi Cian And Explorer: B. Callicoon Depot, Sullivan County, N. Y., 10 June 1865. He Was Gradu Ated At New York University 1890. He Was Surgeon Of The Peary Arctic Expedition 1891 92, And Of The Belgium Antarctic Expedition 1897-99. He Has Received The Decoration Of ...

Cooke
Cooke, Jay, American Capitalist, Known As The °financier Of The Rebellion": B. San Dusky, Ohio, 10 Aug. 1821; D. Ogontz, Pa., 16 Feb. 1905. He Was Educated In Private Schools. At The Age Of 13 He Had Entered Mercantile Life As A Clerk In A Sanduslcy Store, There Displaying Unusual ...