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Consubstantiation

body, bread and wine

CONSUBSTANTIATION, the doctrine that in the Holy Eucharist the real 'body and blood of Christ are present and are of the same substance with the bread and wine. The doctrine of Transubstantiation is that when the words of consecration are pronounced by the priest, the bread and wine are substantially changed into the body and blood of Christ, and consequently cease to exist as bread and wine. The doctrine of Consubstantiation, on the con trary,. is that after consecration they continue to exist in their original form, but substantially conjoined with the body and blood of Christ.

This doctrine, generally ascribed to John of Paris, as its earliest advocate, has had few, if any, confessors. The term ((Consubstantiation') is often incorrectly used to desig.nate Luther's doctrine of the sacramental conjunction with the bread and wine, which is a very different thing from that of the substantial conjunction. Luther taught that the bread and wine are pres ent in the natural, but the body and blood in a supernatural, manner. The presence is not aeon substantiaP• for while the elements are masti cated, swallowed, digested, etc., the body of

Chnst, according to Luther's teaching, is pres ent only when the element is received by the communicant, as the words of distribution are repeated, and no longer. The presence of the elements is comprehensible, visible, tangible; that of the body and blood incomprehensible, invisible, mysterious and inexplicable. The belief that the body and blood of Christ can be received in the same way as the bread and wine, the Lutheran Church designates as °Capernaitic-error? as the people of Caper naum, in John vi, 52, seemed to have had such an impression. Consubstantiation is sometimes called Impanation, .which defines the relation between Christ and the elements in the Eucharist as a hypostatic union such as exists between the divine and human natures in Christ. Con sult Hagenbach, 'History of Doctrines) (Vol. II), and for the Roman Catholic view consult Streber, Ki rch enlexiko n. )