Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 7 >> Connective Tissue to Cooke >> Continuation Schools

Continuation Schools

school, classes, training, trade, time, system, chiefly and provide

CONTINUATION SCHOOLS, the term applied to those systems of training which are adapted to people already at work in business or industry, especially for girls and boys be tween the ages of 14 and 18. The original pur pose of the schools was to provide that general education of which forced entrance into busi ness at an early age deprived the workers. The development of the schools has been chiefly along the lines of substitution of further in dustrial training in place of the general educa tion and of day in place of night classes. The movement began in Germany where such schools in some form existed for many decades, their general and national character having been developed since 1870. They are voluntary — it is left entirely to the discretion of each local authority whether such a continuation school be established and the form, within rea sonable limits, it may take. Two clauses in the Imperial Industrial Law of 1891 provide a limited measure of agreement. Clause 120 re quires employers of labor to grant to employees under 18 the necessary time to attend continua tion classes in the daytime. Classes on Sunday are only permitted in exceptional cases. Clause 142 allows (but does not compel) a local au thority to make attendance at a continuation school obligatory for all males under 18 not at tending an approved secondary or trade school, and throws the responsibility for such attend ance on the scholar's parent or employer, usually on the latter. Since 1891 the system has spread in all sections of Germany and become practically obligatory. Girls are brought within the scheme, but almost always for domestic training only. Apparently two distinct lines of thought control the authorities. On the one hand, it is held that teaching should be defi nitely vocational— that is, specifically applied to the scholar's chosen calling. 'On the other, such a program of teaching is preferred as is calculated to produce a good citizen. The one demand.s tec.hnical skill, the other general efficiency. The former has moved in the direc tion of elaborately-equipped trade continuation school buildings. The latter is a very numerous class, especially in Prussia, and has hitherto been content with makeshift arrangements in elementary school buildings.

Two distinct types of buildings have been evolved. Examples of the first may be seen in the central continuation school at Bonn and in the central and northern continuation schools at Frankfort-on-Main. All erected within the last eight years, in none is there any trade teach ing properly called. The first contains rooms for cookery and type-setting, the second a number of spare rooms in the basement eventu ally to be utilized for workshops, and the third rooms for cookery. In Bonn boys and girls

are taught in the same building; in Frankfort they are separated. There is ample provision for the teaching of applied drawing and ap plied science; but most significant in these three examples is the generous provision for recreation. There are large rooms, artistically decorated and well furnished, where concerts and dances are held and lectures given on Sun days and in the evenings, as well as smaller rooms or alcoves for reading and games. In Munich, where trade-teaching is more con spicuously developed, is less external evidence of this social side of school life, and the build ings approximate very closely to the ordinary technical-school type, But Munich in pro viding scattered distnct schools obviates as far as possible the long journeys and waste of time involved by a huge central building.

In England continuation schools, chiefly in the form of evening classes, have spread more and more. They are not obligatory. Owing probably to the lack of expert teachers, the system has not proved as satisfactory as de sired, but its weak points will be improved in time. In the United States, the plan has been adopted in many cities with considerable suc cess and is a hopeful feature of American edu cation. It adapts itself largely to local needs and admits of varied forms. Another happy feature is the prominence attached to the teach ing of foreigners chiefly in evenings as an in tegral part of the course. The employers of large corpo.rations, recognizing the value of further training, often provide such schools within their own establishments. Ireland has a form of continuation school, which has made some headway since 1915, due to the Catholic WorIcing Boys Technical Aid Association of Dublin which organizes social centres and con, tinuation classes throughout Ireland.

Bibliography.—Consult Pache, O., (Hand buch des deutschen Fortbildungsschulwesen0 (Wittenberg 1896-1902); Jones, A. J., (Con tinuation Schools in the United States) (Wash ington 1907) ; Sadler, M. E., (Continuation Schools in England and Elsewhere) (Manches ter 1908); Ware, F., (Educational Foundations of Trade and Industry.> (New York 1901); Spranger, E., (The Significance of the Continu ation School for the Educational System) (trans. by Porterfield in Educational Review, Vol. 42, No. 1) • ICirschensteiner, G. M. A.,(The Schools and the Nation) (trans. by C. K. Ogden, London 1914).