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Civil List

powerful, branch and likewise

CIVIL LIST.

The alienation of the domains in France, ren dered necessary to reward powerful supporters, was the main cause of the fall of the Carlovin gian dynasty. The succession of the Capets was likewise due to their great possessions, which rendered them the most powerful nobles in France. The policy of this house, particu larly of Louis XI of the Valois branch, in despoiling the great nobles, made them at length absolute masters of the kingdom, although at first their authority, beyond their own domains, was very feeble. The despotic power of the French monarchy reached its climax under Louis XIV, the most powerful of the Bourbon branch of the family. The nobility had now lost nearly all its feudal privileges, and could easily be re warded at court, appointments in the public services, and pensions out of the national revenue. Napoleon, who endeavored as much as possible to revive the traditions and institu tions of the monarchy, had also a domaine ex traordinaire (law of 30 Jan. 1810), which con

sisted of his acquisitions by conquests, and were kept entirely at his disposal; these supplied the means of donations to his generals, etc. The ,domaine extraordinaire was likewise retained by the Bourbons (law of 22 May 1816). The administration of these donations was conducted with great wisdom; and Napoleon, as Las Cases relates, dwelt with pleasure on this branch of his government.

DEMETER, (16-meter, one of the twelve principal Grecian deities, the great mother-god dess, the nourishing and fertilizing principle of nature. She was the daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and mother of Persephone (often called Cora, the Maiden, the Proserpine of Roman mythology), and according to Hesiod, of Di onysus (Bacchus). By the Romans she was .

Identified and worshipped with Ceres. See CERES.