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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8

Civil List
Civil List. The Alienation Of The Domains In France, Ren Dered Necessary To Reward Powerful Supporters, Was The Main Cause Of The Fall Of The Carlovin Gian Dynasty. The Succession Of The Capets Was Likewise Due To Their Great Possessions, Which Rendered Them The Most Powerful Nobles In France. The ...

Continental Gress
Gress, Continental. The First Congress, Of 1774, Assumed Neither Executive Nor Legislative Authority. The Sec Ond, Early In Its Existence (6 July 1775), For Mally Disclaimed Any Purpose Of Separation. The First Half-unconscious Step Was The Appoint Ment, November 1775, Of Five Commissioners To Maintain Communications With Friends Of The ...

Corlyra
Corlyra, Ico-roo'fia, La, Spain, Seaport In The Province Of The Same Name In Galicia, On The Northwest Coast, On A Peninsula At The En Trance Of The Bay Of Coruna. It Consists Of An Upper And A Lower Town, The Former Built On The Eastern Side Of A Small Peninsula, ...

Corot
Corot, Jean-baptiste-camille, French Landscape Painter: B. Paris, 28 July 1796; D. There, 22 Feb. 1875. Against The Wishes Of His Family He Studied Art, First Under Michallon, Next Under Victor Bertin, And Then Passed A Year Or Two In Italy. In 1827 He First Exhibited In The Salon, But It ...

Corporal Punishment
Corporal Punishment, Punish Ment Applied To The Body Of The Offender. In Its Connection With Civil Government It Technically Includes Flogging, Imprisonment And The Death Penalty, But In Common Parlance Its Meaning Is More Restricted And Refers Only To Flogging Or Whipping Of The Body. Various Extreme And Cruel Methods ...

Corporations
Corporations, Of.— The Origin Of Corporations Is Lost In Antiquity. The Word "corporation') Comes From Latin Corporo, From A Sanskrit Root Signifying "to Form Into A Body." °this Masterpiece Of Juristic Ingenuity Is Usually Attributed To The Romans." Yet They Are Said To Have Existed In Greece (594 N.c.), In ...

Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi, Festival Of, A Holiday Instituted By The Roman Catholic Church In Honor Of The Mystery Of The Eucharist, Ob Served On The First Thursday After Trinity Sun Day. Its Observance Began In The Diocese Liege While The Archdeacon Of That Diocese Was James Pantaleon, Who Afterward Became Pope ...

Corpus Juris Canonici
Corpus Juris Canonici, The Body Of Laws For Government Of The Church Enacted By Popes, Councils And Synods Or Drawn The Writings Of The Fathers, And The Approved And Promulgated By The Holy See. There Were Numerous Collections Of Canons Naade And Published Both In The East And The West ...

Correggio
Correggio, Antonio Allegri, Italian Painter, Frequently Called Antonio Da Correggio, From The Place Of His Birth: B. Cor Reggio 1494; D. There, 5 March 1534. He Was Intended For A Learned Profession, But Nature Had Designed Him For An Artist. It Has Not Been Ascertained How Much He Was Indebted ...

Corrigan
Corrigan, Michael Augustine, Ameri Can Roman Catholic Prelate: B. Newark, N. J., 13 Aug. 1839; D. New York, 5 May 1902. He Made His Elementary Studies In A Private School In Newark And At The Age Of 14 Was Sent To Saint Mary's College, Wilmington, Del. In The Spring Of ...

Corrupt Practices Acts
Corrupt Practices Acts. Thq Effort To Eliminate Dishonest, Irregular . And Criminal Methods Of Influencing Public Deor Lions Has Resulted In The Enactment Of Various Laws To Supplement The Common Law Against Bribery And Corruption (see Beim). Such Acts Enumerate And ,define The Corrupt Or Illegal Practices And Fix, Penalties ...

Corsica
Corsica (fr. Corse), An Island In The Mediterranean Belonging To France. It Is Se Arated From The Island Of Sardinia, On The South,by The Strait Of Bonifacio, About 10 Miles Wide, And Its Shortest Distance From The Mainland Is 50 Miles. It Is Distant From France About 100 Miles. It ...

Cortelyou
Cortelyou, George Bruce, American Cabinet Officer: B. New York, 26 J 1862. He Was Graduated From The Long Is Land, Institute, 1879 And The State Normal School, Westfield, Mass., 1832. Between 1883 And 1885 He Was A General Law And Verbatim Reporter In New York; And A Teacher 1885 To ...

Cortes
Cortes, Lthefes, The Old Assembly Of The In Spain And Portugal, The Representa Lives Chosen By The To Assist In The Making And Administering Of The Laws Of Spain And Portugal. In Spain The Cortes Of Castile, Which Was Composed Of The Higher Nobility, The Superior Ecclesiastics, The Knights Of ...

Corthell
Corthell, Elmer Lawrence, American Engineer: B. South Abington (now Whitman), Mass., 30 Sept. 1840; D. Albany, N. Y., 16 May 1916. He Was Educated At Phillips Exeter Academy And At Brown University. In His Second Year At Brown University The Rebellion Broke Out And He Enlisted In The First Regiment, ...

Cosmati Family
Cosmati Family, A Family Of Archi Tects And Sculptors Who Flourished In Rome From The Last Half Of The 12th Century To The Beginning Of The 14th, Who Are Known Prin Cipally Through Their Inscriptions. The More Prominent Members Of The Family Were Lorenzo (2d Half Of 12th Century), Cosma ...

Cosmogony
Cosmogony. From The Greek Eatriairsvial Meaning Creation Of The World. It Is Authenti Cated By Philolaiis And Plutarch That Pythagoras Himself Used The Word Kaerpor, To Denote The Order Of The World, To Which Is Added Yes'iat Origin ; The Word Kooliorsvia.being First Used As The Title Of A Work ...

Cosmos
Cosmos. In The Four Volumes Of
Cossacks
Cossacks, Tribes Who Inhabit The South Ern And Eastern Part Of Russia, Paying No Taxes, But Performing Instead The Duty Of Soldiers. Nearly All Of Them Belong To The Graeco-roman Church, To Which They Are Strongly Attached, And To The Observances Of Which They Are Par Ticularly Attentive. They Must ...

Costa
Costa, Lorenzo, Italian Painter: B. Fermi Rara About 1460; D. Mantua, 5 March 1535. He Studied With Cosimo Tura At His Birthplace And Was Influenced At ,first By Ercole Roberti. And Francesco Cossa. He Was Employed To Decorate The Choir Of The Church Of San Do Menico' In Ferrara, And ...

Costa Rica
Costa Rica. Physiography, Political Divisims And Population.— Costa Rica, A Re Public Of Central America, Is Bounded By Nica Ragua, The Caribbean Sea, Panama And The Pacific Ocean; Area About 22,000 Square Miles. The Republic Is Divided Into Seven Provinces And These Are Subdivided Into Cantones, And The Cantones Into ...

Coster
Coster, Lcds'ter, Or Koster, Laurens Janasoon, A Reputed Dutch Inventor Of Printing By Movable Types. By Many He Is Regarded As A Predecessor Of Gutenberg, By Some As A Mythi Cal Personage. The First Account Of The Inven Tion Which Has Any Historical Value Appeared In 1499 In A Book ...

Costume
Costume, Academic.— The Use Of Caps, Gowns And Hoods In The United States Has Been Continuous Since Colonial Times. Columbia Col Lege Continued The Custom Of Kings College In The City Of New York Which Had Transplanted To American Soil Many Of The Regulations Of Oxford And Cambridge. The Code, ...

Costume
Costume. And Especially Usage, Habit Or Appearance In Dress, Etc.), A Term Now Restricted To External Dress Its And Modes. The History Of Costume Is An Exceed Ingly Difficult One To Trace In Any Accurate Detail, Owing To The Difficulty Of Interpreting The Vague And Scanty Notices On The Subject ...

Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi, Ka-to-pl'he Or Ko-to-paks'i, The Most Remarkable Volcanic Mountain Of The Andes, In Ecuador, About 60 Miles Northeast Of Chimborazo; Lat. 0" 43' S., Long. 78° 40' W. Its Upper Portion, A Perfect Cone 4,400 Feet In Height And Perpetually Snow-covered Save Near The Crater, Shows Conspicuously. This Covering Of ...

Cotton
Cotton, John, American Puritan Clergy Man: B. Derby, England, 4 Dec. 1585; C1 Bos Ton, Mass., 23 Dec. 1652. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Cambridge, And Was After Ward Fellow Of Emmanuel And Employed As Lecturer And Tutor. About 1612 He Became Vicar Of Saint Botolph's Church In Boston, ...

Cotton
Cotton. This Important Vegetable Fibre Is Readily Distinguished From All Other Commer Cial Fibres By Its Spiral Twist, A Character That Renders It Especially Valuable For Spinning. The Wide-spread Distribution Of The Plant, Its Adapt Ability To A Great Variety Of Soils And Climates, And Its Comparative Cheapness, All Tend ...

Cotton Cultivation In Other
Cotton Cultivation In Other Countries. Bast India.— Next To The United States East India Is The Largest Cotton Producing Country In The World. The Plant Is Cultivated To A Greater Or Less Extent In Nearly Every Presidency Or Province, Extending From The North West Frontier Province In The Ex Treme ...

Cotton Cultivation In The
Cotton Cultivation In The United States. From The Time Its Seeds Are Planted Until It Reaches The Consumer In Its Variously Manufactured Forms Cotton Em Ploys More Human Beings Than Any Other Prod Uct Or Industry. This Is Not Surprising When We Consider That 2,500,000 Farmers And Laborers Produce The ...

Cotton Insects
Cotton Insects. The Cotton Worm And Boll-worm Are The Chief Enemies Of The Cotton Plant In The United States; In Other Countries Different Insects Prey Upon It. Vari Ous Caterpillars And Other Insects Attack This Plant Wherever It Is Grown. In Egypt A Noctuid Larva, In Greece Various Kinds Of ...

Cotton Machinery
Cotton Machinery. Ginning Ma Chinery Is Always Located At Or Near A Railway Station In A Cotton-growing Territory. The Earliest Cotton Gin Probably Dates Back To The Days When The Market Price Of Animal Skins Be Came So Great That Man Had To Look Around For A Cheaper Substitute For ...

Cotton Manufactures In The
Cotton Manufactures In The United States. Although Cotton Man Ufacturing Is One Of The Oldest Of The Factory Industries In The United States It Had Made But Little Progress Until The Embargo Was Laid Upon Foreign Commerce During Jefferson's And Madi Son's Administrations. It Resulted In A Remark Able Development ...

Cottonseed Oil Industry
Cottonseed Oil Industry. More Than 2,000 Years Ago The Hindus Mas Tered The Uses Of The Cotton Fibre, Demonstrat Ing Its Remarkable Adaptability For Spinning Into Fabrics To Cover The Nakedness Of The Savage Or Adorn The Dress Of The Nobleman. But It Remained For The Practical Genius Of America ...

Coues
Coues, Kowz, Elliott, American Natural Ist: B. Portsmouth, N. H., 9 Sept. 1842; D. Balti More, 26 Dec. 1899. In 1861 He Was Graduated From Colunibia University, Washington, D. C. And The Year Following Entered The Unites{ States Army As A Medical Cadet. His Thorough Work As Assistant Surgeon In ...

Cougar
Cougar, Koo-gar', The Great American Cat (felis Concolor), Which Ranges From Hudson Bay To Cape Horn, A Remarkable Distance For Any Wild Animal. It Was Formerly Called Pan Ther By The Settlers Of The Eastern States; But In The West It Is Usually °mountain-lion" Or °puma," The Latter Name Said ...

Cough
Cough, In Physiology, A Deep Inspiration Of Air, Followed By A Sudden, Violent And Sailor Ous Expiration, In A Great Measure Involuntary, And Excited By Irritation Of The Air-passages, Due To The Presence Of Some Foreign Material Or Irritation Of The Nerves Distributed To The Respi Ratory Organs. The Organs ...

Coulometer
Coulometer, In Electricity, An Instru Ment For Determining The Quantity Of Electric Current Which Is Passing Through An Electric Cir Cuit. In Other Words It Is A Measure Of Current Efficiency. Several Forms Of Coulometer Have Been Proposed And Many Tests Made With Them. Three Distinct Principles Have Been Employed; ...

Council
Council (lat. Concilum), An Assembly Met For Deliberation, Or To Give Advice. The Term As Used In An Ecclesiastical Sense Specially Applies To Certain Assemblies Of The Roman Catholic Church. These May Be Classed As Ecumenical, Provincial Or Patriarchial Councils And Synods; But The Last Is Not Usually Included Among ...

Counsellor At Law
Counsellor At Law. In The United States A Counsellor At Law Is A Lawyer Author Ized To Follow His Profession And Practice In The Superior Courts Of Record. The Special Function Of A Counsellor At Law Is To Give Advice As To The Legal Aspect Of Judicial Proceedings, To Try ...

Count
Count (lat. Comes) Appears To Have Been First As A Title Of Under The Reign Of During The Existence Of The Republic The Inferior Officers As Tribnni, Pealecti, Seribar, Horn Spices, Accensi Pticacnnes, Who Accompanied The Proconsnles And Proprm Lores Into Their Provincial Governments, Were Known As The Comstes Or ...

Count Of Mont Cristo
Count Of Mont$ Cristo, The. A Typical Novel Of The Romantic Period Ist France Was 'the Count Of Monte Cristo,' By Alexan Dre Dumas, Written From 1841 To 1845 With The Assistance Of Two Minor Collaborators, Auguste Maquet And P. A. Fiorentino. It Was Begun Before And Completed After The ...

Counter Reformation
Counter Reformation, A Move Ment That Assumed Importance In The Roman Catholic Church In The 16th Century, And Lasted From 1560 In The Pontificate Of Pope Pius Iv To 1648, The End Of The Thirty Years' War. Before The Protestant Reformation The Synods And Provincial Councils Of The Church Had ...

Counterfeiting
Counterfeiting, The Making Of Imi Tations Or Counterfeits Of Money, Either Paper Or Coin,— In An Extended Sense Including Some De Grees Of Forgery And Other Cases Of Fraudulent Imitation, As Spurious Trade-marks Or Dies. This Is A Crime Heavily Punishable By Statute, And The United States Government Has Legislated ...

Counterpoint
Counterpoint (from Lat. Punctum Contra Puncture, Point Against Point) In Music, Is The Art Of Combining Melodies, Or More Cor Rectly Of Adding Melody To Melody. The Origin Of The Word Is More Nearly Approached When To A Given Theme The Melody Added Is Called Its Counterpoint. In Former Times ...

County Government In The
County Government In The United States. Local Administration In The United States Is Not Regulated By Any Legis Lation Of The National Government, But Is De Termined By Each Of The 48 States Acting Inde Pendently. Under These Conditions There Are Inevitably Countless Variations In The Organiza Tion And Powers ...