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coruna, french, harbor and peninsula

CORLYRA, Ico-roo'fia, La, Spain, seaport in the province of the same name in Galicia, on the northwest coast, on a peninsula at the en trance of the Bay of Coruna. It consists of an upper and a lower town, the former built on the eastern side of a small peninsula, and the latter on the isthmus connecting the peninsula with the mainland. The harbor, which is well protected, is deep, spacious, and safe, and many improve, ments have lately been made. Coruna is the centre of an extensive commerce, the exports comprising live stock, fruits, vegetables, wine, hams, sardines, leather, etc., while the principal imports are sugar, hides, coal, oil and manufactured articles. There is also an im portant coastwise trade. The city has a large variety of manufactures, including cigars, linen goods, canvas, cordage, lumber, barrels, paper, etc. There is a large government tobacco fac tory. There is a lighthouse 92 feet high, called the Tower of Hercules, and supposed to be of Carthaginian construction and to have been re modeled in Trajan's time. Pop. 45,650. The chronicled history of dates from the Roman occupation. In the Middle Ages it was called Caronium. It was part of the emirate of Cordoba for some time, and suffered severely in the reconquest. The Portuguese captured

the town in 1370. Here in 1386 John of Gaunt landed to urge the claims of his wife, Dofia Constanza, to the Castilian crown, and in 1554 Philip II sailed from the port to marry queen Mary of England. Coruna was the point of departure of the °Invincible Armada° in 1588, and in the following year it was taken by Drake and Norris and nearly destroyed. The harbor was the scene of English naval victories over the French in 1747 and 1805. Coruna is famous for the repulse, on 16 Jan. 1809, of the French under Marshal Soult, by Sir John Moore, who succeeded in withstanding the French attempt to stop the English embarkation,, but lost his life in the battle. The engagement took place on the heights of Elvifia. In 1823 the city fell into the hands of the French. In 1836 it was captured by the Carlists. The result of the Spanish-American War in 1898 was disastrous to Corufia's trade with Cuba and Porto Rico. The province of La Coruna contains another excellent harbor especially adapted for a naval station, namely Ferrol. It has many mineral springs which have been little exploited. The sea-fisheries are the prime industry. Pop. 631,000.