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Costa

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COSTA, Lorenzo, Italian painter: b. Fermi rara about 1460; d. Mantua, 5 March 1535. He studied with Cosimo Tura at his birthplace and was influenced at ,first by Ercole Roberti.

and Francesco CosSa. He was employed to decorate the choir of the church of San Do menico' in Ferrara, and was invited to the ducal coati, where he painted a number of portraits of princes and nobles. Shortly afterward we find him at Ravenna, at Bologna, under the patronage of the Bentivoglio family, and there began lus connection with Francis, with whom he worked as copainter. Here he executed a 'St. Sebastian Pierced by Arrows,' a 'Virgin,' a 'Saint Jarites,' a 'Saint Jerome.' At Mantua, whither he was invited by Francesco Gonzaga, he painted the greatFr number of the pictures in the palace, then being restored by that prince. He left behind him a reputation for keenness of observation, correctness in design and great simplicity and grandeur in form, together with harmonious grouping. Other works include 'Isabella d'Este Crowned by the Muse' (Louvre) and 'The Dead Christ' (Berlin Mu seum). The young Correggio, who accompanied him to Mantua, was his principal pupil. Consult Morellit, 'Italian Painters: Critical Studies of their Works' (translated by Constance Jocelyn )'foulkes, London 1892-93) • Berenson, 'North Italian Painters of the Renaissance) (New York 1907) ; Gardner, 'The Painters of Fer rara' (London 1911).

i Antonio Bernardo da. Cotirrr. OF Tuoataa, Portuguese statesman: b. Fornas d'Algostra, province of Beira, 9 May 1803; d. San Juan de Flor, 1 Sept. 1889. He

received his education at the University of Coimbra. He became judge of the Supreme Court in Oporto and in Lisbon, and in 1835 was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, where he was at first one of the leaders of the Radicals and then of the Conservative party. He was chosen Prime Minister 7 March 1858, but re linquished this position two months afterward. In 184.1, however, he was reinstated. His op pression and misgovernment resulted in his being driven from power 17 May 1846. In 1849, however, he was reappointed Prime Minister, but only to inaugurate a still more stringent dictatorship. Impoverishing the people by his pascrupialosts system of expenditure, contract tug new loans and imposing new taxes, the outcry against him became so irresistible that his own brother Sylva, a member of his cabinet as Minister of Justice, would not any longer $erve under him, and became leader of the opposition in the Cortes, which body was now determined on his overthrow. In the mean tine, however, Saldanha set on foot a revolu tion at Cintra, which spread rapidly over the whole 'kingdom, and put an end to Costa Cabral's administration 26 Feb. 1851. Saldanha became Prime Minister of Portugal and Costa Cabral fled to England. He was Ambassador to Brazil 1859.61. In 1862 he became a member of the' Council of State and president of the Superior Administrative Court.