COSTUME, Academic.— The use of caps, gowns and hoods in the United States has been continuous since Colonial times. Columbia Col lege continued the custom of Kings College in the city of New York which had transplanted to American soil many of the regulations of Oxford and Cambridge. The code, however, was modified and lost much of the high color so noticeable in Great Britain. The University of Pennsylvania, New York University, Trinity College (Hartford, Conn.), Saint John's (An napolis, Md.), University of the South (Sewanee, Tenn.), and Hobart also had codes in force before 1880. There was, however, no system discernible and few persons knew the distinguishing marks of the costumes for the various degrees. Few hoods were in use and some of them were worn by clergymen and by the congregations were supposed to he articles of ecclesiastical rather than academic costume. In fact, there is an intimate connection between the two as the medieval universities were maintained by clerics and the forms of caps, gowns and hoods were merely the medieval forms of clothing, retained and made regulation for the clergy when the lay community changed to more modern dress. Caps were a necessity in
the cold churches; copes and capes with hoods attached were needed for warmth, and the hood was selected by the university men as the article to be made distinctive for the various degrees by color, trimming and lining. As the British universities passed from the control of the ecclesiastics, the costumes took on brighter colors, the dress or convocation robes for the doctors being of scarlet cloth, about the same color as the hunting coats and the old army uniforms.
The use of scarlet for dress use in doctors' gowns and for doctors' hoods is about the only tendency toward uniformity to be found in the British usage, all the codes of the British, Irish and Colonial universities being purely empirical. The codes of Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh and McGill (Montreal) are given herewith.