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Cotton Manufactures in the United States

cent, spindles, increase, industry, census and progress

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COTTON MANUFACTURES IN THE UNITED STATES. Although cotton man ufacturing is one of the oldest of the factory industries in the United States it had made but little progress until the embargo was laid upon foreign commerce during Jefferson's and Madi son's administrations. It resulted in a remark able development of the industry. Like all other industries it has had its periods of de pression, but since that time there has not been a single decade — not excepting the Civil War period— when cotton manufacturing has not shown a substantial growth.

No statistics of the industry were collected until the taking of the Federal census in 1839. That census showed 1,240 establishments at work, giving employment to 72,119 persons and turning out products valued at $46,350,000. The next census, 1849, returned 1,049 establishments, employing 92,286 persons, with manufactured products valued at $61,869,000, while to the census following, 1859, there were returned 1,091 establishments giving employment to 122,028 persons and making wares valued at $115,682,000. Similar statistics collected decen nially by the census (also for 1914), and in cluding the capital employed, are as follows: In addition to the value of the products in 1914, cottoil goods to the value of $6,538,000 were produced by establishments engaged pri marily in other lines of industry.

As measured by the amount of capital em ployed, and as indicating the progress made, the percentage increase in each decennial period is as follows: 1869-79, 48 per cent; 1879-89, 70 per cent; 1889-99, 32 per cent; 1899-1909, 76 per cent, and for six-year period 1909-14 9% per cent.

The number of spindles engaged in the pro duction of yarn is another and more accurate method of measuring the growth of the cotton industry. Thus, taking the same decennial periods as above, and the seven-year period 1909-15,_ the following figures indicate the progress made in the United States, as well as in the cotton-growing States, New England and all other States.

All other United States Cotton States New England States 1869-70 7,132,000 ,328,000 5,498,000 1,306,000 1879-80 10,653,000 561,000 8,632,000 1,460,000 1889-90 14,384,000 1,570,000 10,934,000 1,880,000 1899-00 19,472,000 4,368,000 13,171,000 1,933,000 1909-10 28,018,000 10,429,000 15,592,000 1,997,000 1915-16 32,806,000 13,382,000 17,474,000 1,950,000 1916-17 33,889,000 14,156,000 17,761,000 1,972,000 Beginning with 1869 the increase in the num ber of spindles the first decade, 1869-79, was 3,521,000 or 49.4 per cent; the second, 1879-89,

3,731,000 or 35 per cent; the third, 1889-99, 5,088,000 or 34.4 per cent; the fourth, 1899 1909, 8,546,000 or 44 per cent, and for the pe riod 1909-15, 4,788,000 or 17 per cent. In addi tion to the above number of spindles, there were approximately 500,000 that used raw cot ton mixed with other fibres in the manufacture of woolen goods, hosiery and knit goods.

The above figures show. that within the past 16 years, or since 1900, the number of spindles in the United States has increased 14,417,000 or 77.4 per cent. But the most striking feature in the progress of this industry is the remarkable increase in the number of spindles in the cotton growing States. In 1900 these States operated only 4,368,000 spindles, as compared with 13, 171,000 in the New England States and 1,933,000 in all other States. By 1916 they had added 9,788,000 spindles, an increase of 224 per cent, compared with 4,590,000 for New England, an increase of about 34.8 per cent, while in all other States there was an increase of only 17,000 spindles or less than 1 per cent.

The following table gives the number of mills, the number of spindles operated, and the quantity of domestic and foreign cotton con sumed in each State, and the United State:, during the season 1915-16.

great strength. Rough cotton is 'ttied for mixing with wool in making woolen tex tiles, while the Indian, Chinese and other im ported cottons are, to a limited extent, used for mixing with American upland for making the cheaper grade of goods.

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