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Coverdale

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COVERDALE, Miles, English bishop and reformer: b. probably at Coverdale, Yorkshire, 1488; d. 19 Feb. 1568. He was educated at Cambridge, entered the convent of the Augustine friars, was ordained a priest at Norwich in 1514, and entered the convent of Austin friars at Cambridge where he fell under the influence of Robert Barnes who became prior about 1523. He also became a friend to Cromwell at this period. He was led some years afterward to embrace and preach the reformed doctrines, and, having gone abroad, is said to have assisted Tyndale in translating the Pentateuch. In 1535 his own translation of the Scriptures appeared, with a dedication to Henry VIII, being the first printed English version of the entire Bible. No name of publisher or place of publication appear on the imperfect copies which now exist. It was probably printed by Nicolson in folio and quarto in 1537, and by Froschouer at Zfirich in 1550. It appears possible that Jacob van Meteren was its promoter who engaged Cover dale to do the translation for him. Many of the copies have the preface Coot of Douche and Latyn.° Coverdale's work occupied a long period of time. In the dedication to Edward VI he says "'I was boldened in God 16 years ago to labour faithfully in the same.° The basis of the translations are supposed to have been the Vulgate, the Latin of Pagninus, Luther, die Zurich or German-Swiss and Tyn dale's Pentateuch and New Testament. The New Testament is based chiefly on Tyndale and is much better than the old. In 1538 he was en gaged in superintending at Paris the printing of a revised English version, the greater part of the impression of which was seized and destroyed by the ecclesiastical authorities. The printing presses and types, however, escaped the inquisitors, and being brought over to Eng land, enabled Cranmer's, or the Great Bible, to be printed by Grafton and Whitchurch. The

Prayer-book version of the Psalms is from the Great Bible. After the execution of his patron Cromwell (1540), Coverdale went abroad. Hav ing returned in 1548 he was made almoner to Queen Catharine Parr. In 1549 he assisted Whitchurch in the second volume of the 'Paraphrase of Erasmus.' In 1551, -during the reigi of Edward VI, he was appointed bishop of Exeter, but was ejected on the accession of Mary, and thrown into prison. After two years confinement he was liberated, and pro ceeded first to Denmark, and subsequently to Geneva, where he assisted in preparing the Geneva Bible (1560), the favorite Bible of the Puritans. On the accession of Elizabeth he re turned to England, but his recently acquired views on ecclesiastical ceremonies prevented his being restored to his see of Exeter. He was, however, made rector of Saint Magnus, Lon don Bridge. In 1563 he obtained the degree of D.D. from the University of Cambridge. The third centenary of the publication of his Bible was celebrated by the clergy throughout the churches of England 4 Oct. 1835. His writings are numerous. Consult 'Memorials of Miles Coverdale' (1838), which contains a bibliog raphy; Fry, The Bible by Coverdale) (London 1867) ; Hoare, 'The Evolution of the English Bible' (ib. 2d ed., 1902) •, Pollard, 'Records of the English (Oxford 1911). Biog raphies are in the Parker Society editions of Coverdale's pieces, an index to which may be found in Gough's 'General Index to the Parker Society.' Consult also 'Dictionary of Na tional Biography' (Vol. XII).