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Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8

County
County, In The United States, An Ad Ministrative Subdivision Of Each State, Inter Mediate Between The Body As A Whole And The Town, Parish Or Municipality In The North (ex Cept The Wild Northern Parts Of Maine And New Hampshire), And The Thickly Settled States Of The Central West, It ...

Courbet
Courbet, Koor'inv, French Painter: B. Ornans, Franche-comte, 10 June 1819; D. Near Vevey, Switzerland, 31 Dec. 1877. In 1839 He Was Sent To Study Law In Paris, But All The Bent Of His Nature Was Turned Toward Art. He Studied At The Studio Of Steuben And Hesse, But He Preferred ...

Coursing
Coursing, A Kind Of Sport In Which Hares Are Hunted By Greyhounds, Which Follow The Game By Sight Instead Of By Scent. Coursing Is A Very Old Sport, But In Modern Times It Has Been Considerably Modified In Various Ways, Mainly Through The Influence Of The English Coursing Dubs, Which ...

Court
Court, Koor, Antoine, French Protestant Clergyman : B. Villeneuve-de-berg, Ardiche, France, 17 May 1696; D. Lausanne, Switzerland, 15 June 1760. He Was One Of The Most Promi Nent Protestant Leaders Of His Time And Is Commonly Regarded As The Restorer Of The Formed Church In France And The Founder Of ...

Court
Court. Although The Word "court' Is Still Used As Descriptive Of The Household Of A Reigning Monarch And In Connection With The Official Functions Of Royalty, It Is Now Almost Ex Elusively Used In The United States And Euro Pean Countries In Connection With Judicial Trib Unals. The Objects And ...

Court Ceremonial
Court Ceremonial, Certain Forms Of International Etiquette Or Usage, Which Have Arisen In Europe During Modern Times. No Independent State Can Actually Have Precedence Of Another; But As The Weaker Seek The Pro Tection And Friendship Of The More Powerful, There Arises A Priority Of Rank. The Origin Of Elaborate ...

Court Of Appeals In
Court Of Appeals In Cases Of Capture (1780-87), The Chief Federal Court Prior To The Establishment Of The Supreme Court, Which In A Sense Grew Out Of It. From The Nature Of The Revolt Against Great Britain, The Colonies Were Very Loath To Erect Any New Plenary Power To Decide ...

Court Of Love
Court Of Love (fr. Tour D'omour), In Mediaeval France And Germany, A Tribunal Composed Of Ladies Illustrious For Their Birth And Talent, Whose Jurisdiction, Recognized Only By Courtesy And Opinion, Extended Over All Ques Tions Of Gallantry. Such Courts Existed From The 12th To The 14th Century, While The Roman ...

Court_2
Court, Presentation At, A Formal Pres Entation To The Sovereign Of Great Britain Of Persons Whose Official, Social Or Intellectual Standing Entitles Them To That Honor. It Takes Place Either At Saint James' Palace, At A Levee, Intended For Gentlemen Only, Or At Buckingham Palace, A Drawing-room, Where Both Ladies ...

Courtis Tests
Courtis' Tests. For Several Years Stuart Appleton Courtis (q.v.), In The Discharge Of His Duties As Head Of The Department Of Science And Mathematics In The Detroit Home And Day School, Made Use Of Comparative Tests For Purposes Of Supervision. During This Time A Gradual Evolution Of These Tests Took ...

Cousin
Cousin, Victor, French Philosopher: B. Paris, 28 Nov. 1792; D. Cannes, 13 Jan. 1867. He Founded A School Of Eclectic Philosophy, Combining The Doctrines Of The Scotch School Of Reid And Stewart, Based On Sensation, With Those Of Schelling And Hegel, Which Rest On The Opposite Of Idealism Or Intuition. ...

Covenant
Covenant, In Law, An Agreement Between Two Or More Persons, Entered Into By Deed, Whereby One Of The Parties Promises The Per Formance Or Non-performance Of Certain Acts, Or That A Given State Of Things Does Or Shall, Or Does Not Or Shall Not, Exist. It Differs From An Express ...

Covenanters
Covenanters, In Scottish History, The Name Given To The Party Which Struggled For Religious Liberty From 1637 On To The Revolution. They Were So Called Because They Bound Them Selves In A Series Of Covenants To Maintain The Presbyterian Doctrines. The First Oath Was Signed In The Winter Of 1557,on ...

Coverdale
Coverdale, Miles, English Bishop And Reformer: B. Probably At Coverdale, Yorkshire, 1488; D. 19 Feb. 1568. He Was Educated At Cambridge, Entered The Convent Of The Augustine Friars, Was Ordained A Priest At Norwich In 1514, And Entered The Convent Of Austin Friars At Cambridge Where He Fell Under The ...

Covington
Covington, Ky., City And County-seat Of Kenton County, On The Ohio River Opposite Cincinnati, With Which It Is Connected By A Handsome Suspension Bridge, 2,250 Feet Long, And Costing $2,000,000. It Is The Northern Ter Minus Of The Kentucky Central Railroad And Is Also On The Louisville, Cincinnati And Lexington ...

Cowbird
Cowbird, A Bird (molothrus Ater) Of The Family Icteridce (q.v.), Abundant Throughout North America Except In The Far North, And Notorious Because Of Its Habit Of Escaping The Drudgery Of Domestic Cares After The Fashion Of The European Cuckoo. Closely Related To The Bobolink Or Reed-bird, The Cowbird Lacks The ...

Cowboys
Cowboys, In The American Revolution, A Band Of American Tories Who Infested The Neutral Ground Of Westchester County, N. Y., Robbed The Whigs And Loyalists And Made A Specialty Of Stealing Cattle. A Similar Band Of Marauders On The British Side Received The Name Of °skinners.* The Word Cowboys Is ...

Cowley
Cowley, Abraham, English Poet: B. London 1618; D. Chertsey, Surrey, 28 July 1667. He So Early Imbibed A Taste For Poetry That In 1633, While Yet At School, He Published A Collec Tion Of Verses, Entitled 'poetical Blossoms.' In 1637 He Was Elected A Scholar Of Trinity College, Cambridge, Where ...

Cowpdx
Cowpdx, Also Known As Variola, Is An Infectious Disease Of Cattle Characterized By Fever, Falling Off In The Milk Yield And The Ap Pearance Of Pustules On The Teats And Udder. The Disease Ordinarily Runs A Harmless Course And Is Quite Prevalent, Especially In The Eastern Part Of The United ...

Cowpea
Cowpea (vigna Sinensis). It Belongs To The Natural Order Leguminosece, Family Fabacea, And Is Native Of Southeastern Asia. The Malay Archipelago And Central Africa. It Is Closely Related To The Asparagus Bean And The Catjang, The Other Cultivated Species Of The Genus. It' Was Introduced Into The United States In ...

Cowpens
Cowpens, Battle Of, In The American Revolution, 17 Jan. 1781. At The End Of 1780 Cornwallis Held South Carolina With A Little Over 3,000 Men, Having Lost 1,100 With Ferguson Two Months Before, At King's Mountain. Wait Ing For Reinforcements, He Lay At Winnsborough, North Of. The Centre, Within Supporting ...

Cowper
Cowper, William, English Poet: B. Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, 26 Nov. 1731; D. East Dereham, Norfolk, 25 April 1800. The Eldest Surviving Child Of The Rev. John Cowper (pronounced Cooper) And Anne Donne (d_ 1737), He Was Well Connected On Both Sides, But Inherited Weakness Of Mind And Body, And Was ...

Cowslip
Cowslip, A Popular Name For Several Dis Tinct Species Of Plants, Both American And European. The English Cowslip Is Primula Officinalis, Of The Family Primulacee. It Is A Stemless Perennial Herb With A Rosette Of Oval Or Oblong Soft Leaves, From Among Which Arise Numerous Scapes 6 To 10 Inches ...

Coyote
Coyote, Ld'o-te Or Koi'o-te, Prairie Wolf (canis Latrans), Native To The Western United States, And Before The Advent Of Civilization Nu Merous As Far East As The Extent Of The Prairies Of The Mississippi Valley, Where It Was Called The Red Wolf In Distinction From The Large Gray Or Timber ...

Crab
Crab, The Name Applied To Any Of The Hrachyurous Or Short-tailed Decapod Crustacea, Comprising Numerous Forms, Which, With The Exception Of A Very Few Fresh-water Species, Are Inhabitants Of The Ocean. In The Crabs The Abdomen Is Folded Under The Chest (cephalo Thorax), While The Antenna Are Short And Small. ...

Crab Island
Crab Island, West Indies. See Vieques. (phthirius Inguinalis), A Wingless Insect Of The Family Pediculidce Or Suc Tonal Lice, Which Is Usually Classified Under The Hemiptera. It Is Different In Shape From The Other Lice, Having A Short And Broad Crab-like Appearance. It Is Whitish, With The Thick Legs And ...

Crabillon
Crabill'on, Prosper Joylot De, French Dramatist: B. Dijon, France, 15 Feb. 1674; D. Paris, 17 June 1762. His First Piece, 'la Mort Des Enfants De Brute,' Was Rejected By The Players. His Was Brought Upon The Stage In 1705. The Faults Of The Play Were Overlooked In Consideration Of The ...

Cracker Industry
Cracker Industry, The. There Is, Perhaps, No Branch Of American Enterprise That Has Enjoyed More Phenomenal Development Dur Ing The Past Few Years Than The Cracker, Or Bis Cuit, Industry, For Certainly There Is No Other Single Avenue Of Commercial Endeavor That Is So Far Reaching In Its Source Of ...

Cracking Petroleum
Cracking Petroleum. The Process In Petroleum Distillation Known As (cracking'" Is The Subjecting Of Certain Distillation Products To A Degree Of Heat So Far Above Their Boiling Points That They Are Decomposed Into Component Parts Whose Boiling Points Are Lower. It Is Accomplished In An Ordinary Fire-still By Con Densing ...

Cracow
Cracow (ger. Krakau, Polish Krak6v, Lat. Cracovia Or Carodunum), A City Of Galicia, Austria, Capital Of The Former Polish Republic Of Cracow. It Stands On The Left Bank Of The Vistula, Across Which It Is Connected Since 1850 By The Franz-joseph Bridge With Podgorze. Cracow Consists Of The Inner City, ...

Crafts
Crafts, James Mason, American Chem Ist: B. Boston, 8 March 1839. He Was Educated At The Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard. In 1859 He Went To Germany And Studied At The Academy Of Mines Of Freiberg And At The Uni Versity Of Heidelberg. At The Latter Institution He Acted For Some ...

Craig
Craig, John, Scottish Preacher Of The Reformation: B. Aberdeenshire 1512; D. Edin Burgh, 12 Dec. 1600. He Was Educated At Saint Andrews, Entered The Dominican Order, But Soon Fell Under The Suspicion Of Heresy And Was Cast Into Prison. On His Release (1536) He Traveled On The Continent, And After ...

Cranberry
Cranberry, Several Trailing Species Of The Family Vaccmiacem Genus Oxycoccus. One Of These Species, O. Marcrocarpus, Is Exten Sively Cultivated In The United States For Its Acid Fruit Which Ripens In The Autumn And May Be Kept Until Spring, And Which Finds An Im Portant Culinary Use In The Making ...

Crane
Crane, A Large Wading-bird Of The Exten Sive And Cosmopolitan Family Gruidce. Cranes Are Often Confused With Herons, But Really Are Related To The Rails. The Typical And Most Widely Known Species Is Probably The Common Crane (grus Communis) Of Europe And Northern Asia, Which Has Long Figured In Literature ...

Crane_2
Crane, A Hoisting And Transporting Ma Chine, Consisting Essentially Of A Central Post On Which Is Mounted Rigidly A Crosswise Arm Or Jib; Together With A Winding Apparatus And A Device For Rotating The Entire Structure Upon A Pivot Or On A Circular Track. The Jib Is Com Monly Supported ...

Cranford
Cranford. Not Exactly A Novel, Mrs. Elizabeth Gaskell's (cranford' Was First Pub Lished As A Series Of ((sketches From Life° In Household Words, A Periodical Which Dickens Was Editing. When The Series Came To An End In 1853 The Sketches Were Collected And Issued As A Book. Mrs. Gaskell Wrote ...

Crank
Crank, In Mechanics, Is A Fundamental Form Of The Lever. The Word Means Primarily A Bend, The Simple Form Of Crank Being A Bend Of An Axle For Turning It. On A Windlass The Crank Is The Cross-piece That Joins The Axle With The Handle. In A Steam-engine The Crank ...

Cranmer
Cranmer, Thomas, English Prelate And Reformer: B. Aslacton, Nottinghamshire, 2 July 1489; D. Oxford, 21 March 1556. He Was Edu Cated At Cambridge And In 1523 Was. Chosen Reader Of Theological Lectures In His College And Examiner Of Candidates For Degrees In Divinity. In The Course Of Conversation On The ...

Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park, A Government Reservation Created By Act Of Congress Approved 22 May 1902. It Is Situated In Southwestern Oregon, About 60 Miles From The California Bounda, On The Crest Of The Cascade Mountains. Measuring Approximately 18 Miles North And South By 13% Miles East And West, It ...

Cratjegus
Cratjegus, Genus Of Plants Placed By American Botanists In The Apple Family (pomar Cece). The Genus Includes About 50 Species, Natives Of The North Temperate Zone, Mexico And The Andes Of Parts Of Central America. The Name Is From The Greek, Meaning And The Plants Are So Called From The ...

Crawford
Crawford, Francis Marion, American Novelist: B. Bagni Di Lucca, Italy, 2 Aug. 1854; D. Sorrento, Italy, 8 April 1909. He Was Edu Cated At Trinity College, Cambridge, And After Ward Studied Sanskrit And Other Subjects On The European Continent. In 1879-80 He Was Editor Of The Allahabad Indian Herald And ...

Crazy Horse
Crazy Horse, A Leader Of The Southern Sioux, Who Refused To Be Confined To The Reservations And Who Made War Against The Crows, The Mandan And The Whites. He And Sitting Bull Were The Two Foremost Leaders Of The Sioux War Which Broke Out In 1875. This Indian Outbreak Was ...

Cream Of Tartar
Cream Of Tartar, A White, Crystal Line Compound Of Tartaric Acid (q.v.) And Potassium. Tartaric Acid Is Dibasic, Its Molecule Containing Two Atoms Of Hydrogen That Are Replaceable By Metals. Cream Of Tartar Is The Substance That Is Formed When Only One Of These Typical Hydrogen Atoms Is Replaced By ...

Creation
Creation (lit. Creatio, From Creare, To Create), The. Creation Is The Act Of Creating Or Bringing Into Existence, Also Something Created Or Caused To Exist; Specifically, The Act Of Bringing Into Existence The Universe, Likewise The Universe Itself. The Old Testament Account Of The Creation Contained In Genesis I-ii, 4 ...

Credit
Credit, Economic And Public. In Political Economy The Term Credit Is Used To Sig Nify (1) The Ability Of A Person To Secure A Sum Of Money Or Its Equivalent On A Promise To Pay The Same Sum Or Its Equivalent At Some Fu Ture Date; (2) Claims For Future ...

Credit Mobilier Of America
Credit Mobilier Of America, The Source Of The Most Tremendous Legislative Scandal In American History. The National Gov Ernment In 1864 Had Chartered A "union Pacific Railroad," With $100,000,000 Capital, To Complete A Transcontinental Line West From The Missouri River; And Offered To Assist It By A Loan Of $16,000 ...

Creeds And Confessions
Creeds And Confessions (lat. Credo, Iii Believe)); Confessio Confess))), For Mularies Of Religious Doctrine, Rules, Symbols Or Testimonies Of Faith For Public Use, Setting Forth With Authority Articles Of Belief Which Are Re Garded By The Different Christian Sects As Nec Essary For Salvation. Of These Formularies, The Earliest Is ...

Creeks
Creeks (named For The Same Reason As Or In Translation From Their Algonquin Name, Muskoki, °creeks," From Their Many-rivered Land), A Once Powerful Confederacy Of Gulf In Dians, The Strongest Indian Power South Of New York, Except The Cherokees. They Occu Pied A Large Part Of Georgia And Alabama, And ...

Cremation Of The Dead
Cremation Of The Dead, The Prac Tice Of Disposing Of The Bodies Of The Dead By Reducing Them To Ashes, Instead Of By Burial. The Custom Is Of Ancient Origin, And Has Been Revived In Modern Times. In Greece Burial Was Practised Through The 5th Century B.c., But With The ...

Cremona
Cremona, Icra-meina, Italy, City And Capital Of Province Of Same Name, On A Plain On The Left Bank Of The Po, 47 Miles South Of Milan. It Is Surrounded By Walls And Wet Ditches, And Defended By A Citadel. It Has Broad But Irregular Streets And Attractive Public Squares, And ...

Creodonta
Creodonta, Clan'ta, An Extinct Suborder Of The Carnivora (q.v.), Distinguished By Many Primitive Characters, And Especially By The Fact That The Scaphoid And Lunar Bones Of The Wrist Are Separate Instead Of United Into A Single Bone As In Modern Carnivora. In All Modern Land Carnivores The Last Premolar Tooth ...

Creosote
Creosote (greek A Product Of The Destructive Distillation Of Wood Or Coal Especially The Former. Wood-tar Creosote, When Freshly Prepared, Is An Oily, Transparent Liquid, Colorless, And Of Indefinite Composition, Containing Many Different Chemical Substances, Chiefly Belonging To The Aromatic Series. It Was Discovered By . Reichenbach In 1832, And ...

Cresap
Cresap, Michael, American Trader And Indian Fighter: B. Allegheny County, Md., 29 June 1742; D. New York, N. Y., 18 Oct. 1775. His Father, Thomas, Emigrated From Yorkshire, England, Settled In Western Maryland, And Was A Member Of The Ohio Company In 1752. His Son Married A Miss Whitehead, Of ...

Cretaceous
Cretaceous, A Name Applied By Geolo Gists To The Latest Period Of The Mesozoic Era, And To The System Of Rocks Then Formed. It Follows The Jurassic And Precedes The Tertiary. The Name Conies From The Latin For Chalk And In The Type Localities The Formation Is Usually Characterized By ...

Cretinism
Cretinism. This Is A Broad General Term Applied To A Combination Of Physical And Mental Changes Which, In The Young, Result From Loss Or Diminution Of The Thyroid Functions. Such A Loss May Occur Sporadically (sporadic Cretinism) From Causes To Be Enumerated, Where The Picture Is Analogous To That Seen ...

Cribbage
Cribbage, A Card Game Of An Essentially Skilful Nature, Played Mostly By Two Persons, Though Three Or Four Can Be Arranged For; With An Ordinary Pack Of Cards. Court Cards And Tens Rank Equal, All Others According To Their °pips,d Ace Counting One. The Game Is To Win 61 Points. ...

Crichton
Crichton, Kri'ton, James, Surnamed The Admirable, Scottish Nobleman: B. Perth Shire, Scotland, 19 Aug. 1560; D. Mantua, Italy, 3 July 1583. His Father Was A Lord Of Session And Through His Mother He Was Of Royal De Scent. He Was One Of The Young Men Selected To Be Fellow-students Of ...

Cricket
Cricket, A Well-known Game, Commonly Called The National Game Of England, Played In The United States, Great Britain, Australia And India, The Players Being Arranged In Two Con Testing Sides Of 11 Each. Strutt, One Of The Best English Authorities On Ancient Sport, Ad Duces Some Evidence To Show That ...

Crime
Crime, A Word Signifying In Its Legal Ac Ceptation Any Act To Which The Law Attaches A Penalty Or Punishment, Without Any Reference To Its Moral Turpitude. The Common-law Division Of Crimes Was Into Treason (q.v.), Felony (q.v.) And Misdemeanor (q.v.). At Present Treason Is Usually Classed As A Felony ...

Crime And Punishment
Crime And Punishment (prestu Pleniye I Nakazaniye). Dost6yevslcy's Greatest Masterpiece In Fiction, (crime And Punishment,' Is The Psychological Study Of A Murderer. A Law-student In The University Of Petersburg Has Written For A Periodical An Article On Crime. This Has Turned His Attention To The Subject, And As He Has ...

Crimea
Crimea, Kri-mea Or Kri-mea The (fr. Crime('; German, Krim; Ancient Fhersonesus Tourica), A Peninsula Forming The Most South Erly Portion Of The Russian Government Of Taurida On The North Side Of The Black Sea, Separated From The Mainland On The North By The Isthmus Of Perekop, Over Three Miles Across, ...

Criminal Law
Criminal Law. Modern Treatment Of The Criminal The Statistical Method Is Very Useful In Crim Inological Research And Is Ancillary To All Of The Other Criminological Methods. It Is Of Utility In The Study And Analysis Of Most Of The Causes And Conditions Of Crime And Has Great Value For ...

Criminal Law
Criminal Law. A Definition Of Crim Inal Law As That Part Of The Law Which Relates To Crimes And Their Punishment Requires An Ex Planatory Definition Of The Term ((crime?) A Definition Of A Crime As An Act Or Omission For Which Legal Punishment May Be Inflicted Upon The Person ...

Criminology
Criminology Is The Scientific Study Of Crime And The Criminal. It Is Not One Of The Fundamental Sciences, But Is A Hybrid Product Of Several Sciences. Zoology, Anthropology, His Tory And Sociology Furnish The Facts For A De Scription Of The Nature, Origin And Evolution Of Crime. Meteorology, Demography And ...

Crinoid
Crinoid, Kri'noid, Or A Stalked Echinoderm Usually Fixed To The Sea Bot Tom By A Jointed Stem So As To Present A Flower Like Form. The Body Is More Or Less Cup Shaped, With 5 To 40 Jointed Flexible Arms Subdivided Into Branches, And Bearing Pinnules, All Made Up Of ...

Crises
Crises, Economic. Crises Are Of Financial Or Commercial And Industrial Depres Sion Or Disturbance, Distinguished By Sudden And General Efforts To Liquidate, By Scaling Down Of Prices, By Restriction Of Credit And By Wide Spread Failures, Insolvencies And Bankruptcies. The Words Crisis And Panic Are Used Inter Changeably, Though The ...

Crispi
Crispi, Francesco, Italian Statesman: B. Ribera, Sicily, 4 Oct. 1819; D. 11 Aug. 1901. He Studied Law At The University Of Palermo, Taking The Degree Of Doctor Of Laws At The Age Of 18 And Settled At Naples In 1846. He Took Part In The Sicilian Revolution At Palermo (1848), ...

Critical Point
Critical Point (or Critical State), In Physics A State Or Condition At Which The Physical Properties Of A Given Sub Stance Undergo Some Important And More Or Less Hidden Modification. The Term Is Seldom Ap Plied To A State Or Condition At Which An Easily Visible Change (such As Freezing) ...

Criticism
Criticism, The Expression Of A Judgment Concerning Any Subject; Specifically The Lating Of Opinions Based Upon Certain Principles, In Matters Of Art, Literature, Philosophy, Etc. Certain Canons Apply In A General Way To All Criticism, But Each Branch Has Its Own Particular Methods And Standards. In Its Narrow Sense, The ...

Critique Of Pure Reason
Critique Of Pure Reason, The. Kant's (critique Of Pure Reason' (kritik Der Reinen Vernunft) Has Commanded The At Tention Of Professional Philosophers• To An Ex Tent Attained By No Other Modern Work. Though A Clumsy, Unintelligible And Technical Writer, Kant Long Stood At The Centre Of Aca Demical Philosophy—a Position ...

Crittenden Compromise
Crittenden Compromise, The Last Desperate Effort Of The Southern Union Party To Avert Secession And War, By Perma Nently Crystallizing The Free And Slave Commu Nities As They Stood; Dividing The Boundaries On The Line Of The Missouri Compromise And Engag Ing The Federal Power To Uphold Slavery To The ...

Crocodile
Crocodile, A Huge Reptile Of The Genus Crocodilus And Order Crocodilia, Distinguished From The Other Genera Of The Family By Having The Enlarged Fourth Lower Tooth Fitted Into An Emargination, And Not A Pit, In The Upper Jaw, The Dorsal Head And Trunk Plates Not United And The Nasal Bones ...

Crofters
Crofters, A Term Applied In Scotland To A Species Of Small Farmers, The Occupiers Of Small Pieces Of Land, From Which They Derive Their Livelihood, Or Great Part Of It, By Cultiva Tion Or Rearing And Grazing Cattle. Their Origin Can Be Traced To The Fact That The Chiefs Of ...

Crome
Crome, John, English Landscape Painter: B. Norwich, Be Dec. 1768; D. There, 22 April 1821. His School Education Was Very Scanty, But After Some Struggle And A Long Apprentice Ship To A Sign Painter He Succeeded In Getting Established As A Drawing-master. He Studied The Dutch Masters, His Favorite Being'hobbema, ...