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Cowslip

english, cox, colors, history, bishop, landscape, england and birmingham

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COWSLIP, a popular name for several dis tinct species of plants, both American and European. The English cowslip is Primula officinalis, of the family Primulacee. It is a stemless perennial herb with a rosette of oval or oblong soft leaves, from among which arise numerous scapes 6 to 10 inches tall and bearing six or eight bright yellow, fragrant flowers in a close umbel which leans to one side. The plant has long been a general favorite in gardens where it usually receives little attention beyond an occasional stirring of the soil to remove weeds and the application of the usual winter mulch of stable manure. Several improved varieties have been produced in divers colors. The plant most widely known in America as cowslip is Caltha palustris, the marsh marigold, a member of the family Ranunculacee. This is a succulent perennial herb common in wet ground from the Carolinas to the Arctic regions. It has strong fibrous roots, hollow branching stems one to two feet tall, heart-shaped or kidney-shaped leaves and brilliant yellow flowers resembling buttercup, by which name the plant is sometimes called. It is often cultivated for ornament in marshy ground and has developed some improved double-flowered varieties.. Its leaves and young stems are often used as a pot-herb in early spring. The American cow slip or shooting-star is Dodecatheon meadia of the family Primulacece. It is a stemless peren nial with fibrous roots, spatulate-oblong leaves in a dense rosette from which the scape rises to a height of 9 to 18 inches or more, hearing at its summit several or many pendant pink, white or lilac flowers with reflexed petals and prominent anthers and pistils. Each flower of the cluster resembles the solitary flowers of cyclamen. Other species of the same genus are also known by the name, and like it are planted in hardy flower borders like tke English cowslip.

COX, David, English landscape painter: b. Birmingham, 29 April 1783; d. Harbourne, Birmingham, 7 June 1859. He was for several years engaged as scene-painter for various pro vincial and London theatres, and during a con siderable portion of his early life he had to teach his art for a subsistence. His travels in Wales (1805) furnished him with material for numbers of his paintings. In 1813 he was made a member of the Society of Painters and Water-Colorists and in the following year pub lished a treatise on 'Landscape Painting and Effect in Water Colors.' He removed to Harbourne near Birmingham in 1841. His works are chiefly of English landscape, and in water colors, in which he especially excelled, being ranked by some critics as the first of Eng lish water-colorists. At the age of 56 he began

the study of oil-painting under Muller and be came very skilful in the art. Cox ranks as the greatest of the successors of Constable (q.v.). His colors are light and fresh, and his treat ment of light and shade is most skilful. He excels in small productions. The British Mu seum and the South Kensington Museum possess some of his water colors and drawings, but the best of his works are in the Birmingham Art Gallery and in private collections. An exhibition of his paintings was held in Manchester 1887. Well-known pictures by him are 'Washing Day) (1843) ; 'The Vale of Clwyd) (1846) ; 'Peace and (1846) ; 'The Summit of the Moun tain' (1853). His son, David Cox (1809-85), was likewise a water-colorist of some distinc tion. Consult Hall, 'Biography of David Cox' (London 1N1) • Solly, 'Memoir of David Cox) (ib. 1875) ; Baldry (in

COX, Sut George William, English clergy man and historical writer: b. Benares, Hindu stan, 10 Jan. 1827; d. Walmer, England, 9 Feb. 1902. He was educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Oxford, and took orders in 1850. From 1850 till 1851 he was curate of Salcombe Regis, Devon; from 1854 till 1857, of Saint Paul's, Exeter, and in 1881 became vicar of Bekesborne, Kent. From 1881 till 1897 he was rector of Scrayingham, Yorkshire. He succeeded his uncle in the baronetcy in 1877. In 1891 he was chosen bishop of Natal by the friends of Bishop Colenso (q.v.) but the archbishops and bishops of England refused him consecration. He pub lished 'Poems Legendary and Historical' (with the historian Freeman, 1850) ; 'Life of Saint Boniface> (1853) ; 'Tales from Greek Mythol ogy) (1861) • 'The Tale of the Great Persian War, from Herodotus' (1861) ; 'Tales of the Gods and Heroes' (1862) ; 'Tales of Thebes and Argos' (1864) ; 'A Manual of Mythology) (1867) • 'Tales of Ancient Greece' (1868) ; (1888).

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