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chemistry, institute and organic

CRAFTS, James Mason, American chem ist: b. Boston, 8 March 1839. He was educated at the Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard. In 1859 he went to Germany and studied at the Academy of Mines of Freiberg and at the Uni versity of Heidelberg. At the latter institution he acted for some time as private assistant to Bunsen. In 1861 he went to Paris, and there met Charles Friedel, with whom he later carried out some of his most brilliant researches. In 1865 he returned to the United States, and, after devoting some time to mining, became professor of chemistry and dean of the faculty at Cornell University, where he remained until 1870. Dur mg the following four years he was professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1874 he joined Friedel in Paris, and devoted himself exclusively to scientific research. His investigations were chiefly in the field of organic chemistry. He invented a new hydrogen thermometer; measured the densities of iodine at very high temperatures. His most important achievement was the discovery, with Fnedel, of one of the most fruitful synthetic methods in organic chemistry. Hundreds of

new carbon compounds have been brought into existence by this method. In recognition of his services to science, the French government made hint a chevalier of the Legion of Honor (1885), and the British Association for the Advance ment of Science made him one of its corre sponding members. In 1891 he again returned to this country, and from 1892 to 1897 was pro fessor of organic chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1898 he became president of the institute, and in the same year Harvard conferred upon him the honorary de gree of doctor of laws. In 1900 he resigned the presidency of the institute, and again turned to research work in organic and physical chem istry. His recent concerns questions of thermometry and catalysis in concentrated solu tions. The numerous results of his work were published in various scientific periodicals. He has published