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CRAWFORD, Francis Marion, American novelist: b. Bagni di Lucca, Italy, 2 Aug. 1854; d. Sorrento, Italy, 8 April 1909. He was edu cated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and after ward studied Sanskrit and other subjects on the European continent. In 1879-80 he was editor of the Allahabad Indian Herald and for nearly 20 years subsequently resided mainly in Italy. His novels and other writings include 'Mr. Isaacs' (1882) ; 'Doctor Claudius' (1883); 'A Roman Singer' (1884); 'An American Pol itician' (1884) ; (1888); 'Greifenstein> (1889); 'Sant' Ilario> (1889); 'A Cigarette-maker's Romance' (1890); 'The Witch of Prague' (1891); 'Khaled' (1891); 'The Three Fates' (1892); 'The Children of the King' (1892); 'Don Orsino' (1892); 'Marion Darche (1893); (Pietro (1893); 'The Novel: What Is It?' (1893); (1895) ; stantinople' (1895) ; 'Casa Braccio> (1895); 'Taquisara> (1896); 'A Rose of Yesterday' (1897); 'Corleone> (1897); Roma Im mortals' (1898); 'In the Palace of the King' (1898) ; Crucis' (1899); Rulers of the South> (1900); 'Marietta' (1900); (Ce cilia) (1902); 'Man Overboard'(1903); from Venetian History> (1905); 'Whosoever Shall Offend> (1904); 'Fair Mar garet' (1905) ; 'Prima Donna' (1908); 'The White Sister' (1909). As a novelist Crawford

is' characterized by excellence in the depicting of character and general carefulness in the handling and collection of his materials. The Saracinesca series, stories of modern Rome, is regarded as his most important per nenan rt ce. He had the beguiling gift of the born story-teller who has also become an ac complished master in the art of fiction. In genious plots, a varied company of interesting dramatis persona: faithfully studied and freshly portrayed, picturesque settings and behind all the attractive personality of an intelligent and cultivated man of the world—these character istics explain and justify the delight with which an immense audience, American and European, welcomed the annual appearance of one of the long series of his novels. In his historical works he betrays a gift of conjuring up the life of the Italian past in a manner that makes the spirit and the facts of history as entertain, ing as a romance. Several of his novels have been translated into German, and he himself produced French versions of 'Zoroaster' and 'Marzio's Crucifix.' In recognition of his merits as a writer the French Academy be stowed on him the Monbrun prize and a gold medal.