CRAZY HORSE, a leader of the Southern Sioux, who refused to be confined to the reservations and who made war against the Crows, the Mandan and the whites. He and Sitting Bull were the two foremost leaders of the Sioux War which broke out in 1875. This Indian outbreak was due to several causes, chief of which was the occupancy of the Black Hills by the whites. General Reynolds that same winter surprised the camp of Crazy Horse, but the band succeeded in retreating with com paratively small loss, in a storm. A little later Crazy Horse with a strong band of Sioux and Cheyenne compelled the forces of General Crook to retreat. He then strengthened his band by Indians from the different reservations, which were filled with a seething unrest by his agents. Others from the reservations joined Sitting Bull in Dakota. The forces of the two leadersjoined, and under the leadership of Sitting Bull they annihilated the forces of General Custer at the battle of the Little Big horn River in Montana (25 June 1876). For over a year the united bands held the country in terror. The following winter Gen. Nelson A. Miles marched against them, whereupon the two Indian bands separated. General Macken zie followed Crazy Horse and defeated his band on the Tongue River, and Miles followed the retreating Indians to the Bighorn Moun tains, where he can scarcely be said to have won any victory over them, thanks to the skilful management of Crazy Horse, even though he used artillery against them effectively. How
ever, the pressure on the Indians from all sides became so great that Crazy Horse with 2.000 warriors surrendered the following spring. Suspected of attempting to stir up more trouble he was arrested (7 Sept. 1877). In attempting to escape he was shot by the guard. Consult Hodge, 'Handbook of American Indians' (Washington 1910) ; Miles, 'Personal Recollec tions) (1896).
a common name in the prairie States for species of vetch (Astragatus) of the pea family. They are herbs with purple or yellowish purple flowers, growing on the prairies from Nebraska and Colorado south ward to Texas and New Mexico. They receive the name of crazy-weed from the effect they have upon cattle when eaten by them. Another common name is loco-weed, from which arises a local term for an insanely acting person, who is said to be locoed. The same common names are applied to Oxytrokis lamberti, which grows northward from Minnesota to British Colum bia and south to Texas and New Mexico.