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CROME, John, English landscape painter: b. Norwich, be Dec. 1768; d. there, 22 April 1821. His school education was very scanty, but after some struggle and a long apprentice ship to a sign painter he succeeded in getting established as a drawing-master. He studied the Dutch masters, his favorite being'Hobbema, but his distinguishing characteristic is his genu ine English realism. He paid great attention to and though this is sometimes exag gerated in his work, there is always a mastery of feeling for light and out-of-doors which give great force and individuality. In 1805 he founded the Norwich Society of Artists, of which he became president as well as chief con tributor to its annual exhibitions. Some of his pictures are Heath' ; of Chapel Fields, Norwich' ; Abbey' ; and of the at Poring lane' (in the National Gallery) ; the Common' (in the Metropolitan Mu seum) ; and (The Old Oak) (also in New York). His visit to Paris enabled him to catch the livelier note in his at Boulogne' and des Italiens, Paris' (Keswick Hall, near Norwich). He excelled in depicting

the scenery of his native county, and especially in his handling of trees; and his high place among British landscape painters is now uni versally acknowledged. He also practised etch ing with great success. His etchings were published posthumously under the title of folk Picturesque Scenery' (1834, 1838, 1850). Consult his biography by Turner (Norwich 1838) ; Wodderspoon (ib. 1858) ; Hardie, in the Connoisseur (London 1904) ; VanDyck, English Masters' (New York 1902) ; Dickes, Norwich School of Painting' (London 1905) ; Binyon, (J. Crome and J. S. Cotman) (ib. 1906) ; Theobald, Crome's Etchings' (ib. 1906). He is sometimes called Crome,) to distinguish him from his son, J. Berney Crome, also an artist (q.v.).