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CROMER, Evelyn Baring, 1ST EARL, English statesman and diplomatist: b. Cromer Hall, Norfolk, 26 Feb. 1841; d. London, 29 Jan.

1917. He was educated at the Ordnance School, Carshalton, and at the Royal Military Academy of Woolwich. He joined the Royal Artillery in 1858, became aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Storks, high commissioner of the Ionian Islands, in 1861, and acted as secretary during the inquiry into the Jamaica outbreak in 1865. He came to New York in 1864 to study the Civil War, went to the front with the Federal troops and succeeded in reaching the Union lines before Petersburg. He was gazetted captain in 1870, and in 1872 became private secretary to his cousin, Lord Northbrook, viceroy of India, where he remained until 1876, when he was gazetted major and was appointed British com missioner of the Egyptian public debt office. He was mainly responsible for the report of the commission of inquiry of 1878, into the financial methods of the Khedive Ismail, and on the latter's enforced abdication in 1879, Major Baring became British controller-general of Egyptian finances and practical director of the dual control. He was transferred to India in 1880, where he became financial member of the council of the governor-general of India. He remained there till 1883, leaving an un mistakable mark on the financial system of India, and in the same year became British agent and consul-general in Egypt and a minis ter plenipotentiary in the diplomatic service. He was created first Baron Cromer in 1892, vis count in 1898 and earl in 1901. His record was made in Egypt, where he found the country bankrupt and the people ground down by heavy taxation. He bolstered up the country's credit,

reduced taxation to a minimum, removed dis honest officials by the thousand, abolished forced labor, built schools and hospitals and introduced modern sanitation methods. His biggest single work was to build the country's irrigation system, considered for years the model of the world. This greatly increased the country's prosperity, by securing the natives three crops a year. He saw to it that the peasants and small farmers received propor tionately the same benefit as the owners of huge estates. He also reformed the army, increased trade and greatly extended railway, postal and telegraph facilities. His efficient administration won for him the title of ((Maker of Modern Egypt)) He resigned in 1907 because of ill health and received a ?rant of $250,000 from Parliament in recognition of his services in Egypt. In 1908 he published, in two volumes, Egypt,' in which he gave an impartial account of events in Egypt and the Sudan since 1876, and dealt with the results to Egypt of the British occupation of the country. In 1911 he was active in securing Unionist support for the Parliament Bill, so as to prevent the creation of new peers. He wrote several articles on the European War, and in July 1916 was appointed chairman of a commission to investigate the Dardanelles campaign. His publications, besides those already noted, include College Essays' ; 'Paraphrases and Translations from the Greek' ; (The War and Modern Imperialism' (1910); and L ry itera Essays) (1908-13) ; (Abbas II) (1915). See EGYPT.