Home >> Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8 >> Cromer to Curves Of Double Curvature

Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 8

Cromer
Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl, English Statesman And Diplomatist: B. Cromer Hall, Norfolk, 26 Feb. 1841; D. London, 29 Jan. 1917. He Was Educated At The Ordnance School, Carshalton, And At The Royal Military Academy Of Woolwich. He Joined The Royal Artillery In 1858, Became Aide-de-camp To Sir Henry Storks, ...

Cromlech
Cromlech, Kromilek, The Name Given To A Kind Of Ancient Sepulchral Monument, Num Bers Of Which Have Been Found In All Parts Of The British Islands, As Well As On The Continent Of Europe, In Asia And In America. A Cromlech Consists Of Three Or More Columns Of Unhewn Stone ...

Cromwell
Cromwell, Oliver, Lord-protector Of England: B. Huntingdon, 25 April 1599; D. London, 3 Sept. 1658. He Was The Second Son Of Robert Cromwell And Elizabeth Steward. His Father Was A Younger Son Of Sir Henry Cromwell, Knighted By Queen Elizabeth; And Sir Henry Again Was A Son Of Sir Richard ...

Cromwiml
Cr'omwiml, Thomas, Earl Or English Statesman; B. Putney, Surrey, About 1485; D. 28 July 1540. In His Youth He Went To The Continent, And Was Successively Common Soldier, Clerk And Trader. In 1514 Wolsey Made Him Collector Of The Revenues Of His See Of York, And Nine Years Later He ...

Croquet
Croquet, Kro-lcii, To The Most Scientific Form Of Which The Name Room Is Given In America, An Open-air Game Played With Balls, Mallets And Arches, Either Upon A Closely Mowed Lawn Or A Specially Prepared Court. The Game Is Substantially A Revival Of The Old Game Of Pall Mall, Which ...

Cross
Cross, A Common Instrument Of Capital Punishment Among The Ancients; Esteemed So Dishonorable That Only Slaves And Malefactors Of The Lowest Class Were Subjected To It By The Romans. It Was Customary To Proclaim The Name And Offense Of The Person Crucified, Or To Affix A Tablet (album) To The ...

Cross Fertilization In Ani Mals
Cross-fertilization In Ani Mals And In Man. In Animals And Man, Cross-fertilization Means The Crossing Of Dividuals Of Different Races Or Breeds In Con• Tradistinction To In-and-inbreeding Which Is Generally Regarded As Leading To Evil Results. Inbreeding, Interbreeding Or Close Breeding, Which Means The Breeding Together Of Closely Related Animals ...

Cross Fertilization In Plants
Cross-fertilization In Plants. Methods By Which Cross-fertilization Is A Knowledge Of The Sex Distinction Of Animals Dates From The Dawn Of Human History, The Sexuality Of Plants Remained Unknown Until About Two Centuries Ago. Experi Mental Proof Of The Sexuality Of Plants Was Published For The First Time By Camerarius ...

Cross Keys
Cross Keys, Battle Of. On The Morning Of 8 June 1862 General Fremont, With 10,500 Men And 44 Guns Marched From Harrisonburg, Va., Following Gen: •stonewall* Jackson Who Had Been Pursued Up The Shenandoah Valley, And Who Had Now Fallen Back In The Di Rection Of Port Republic. Fremont's Cavalry ...

Crossbows
Crossbows. Called Also Arbalests. The Main Elements That Compose The Crossbow Are The Arbrier Or Stock And The Short, Powerful Bow Mounted On The Stock At Right Angles. At The Bow End Is A Or Loop Of Iron. The Bowstring, When At Tension, Is Released By A Trigger, For Its ...

Crosses And Crucifixes
Crosses And Crucifixes. The Cross As A Symbol Dates Back To An Unknown Antiquity. It Was Recognized In All Countries Throughout The World At All Times. Before The Present Era The Buddhists, Brahmans And Druids Utilized The Device. Seymour Tells Us: "the Druids Considered That The Long Arm Of The ...

Croton Aqueduct
Croton Aqueduct And Croton Dam, An Aqueduct And Dam For Many Years The Only Means Of Water Supply For The City Of New York. The Waters Of Croton Lake, An Artificial Body Of Water Formed By Damming The Croton River, Were First Conveyed To The City In 1842, By What ...

Croup
Croup, A Term Popularly Used For A Num Ber Of Conditions Which Have Been More Specifi Cally Defined. It Is In Reality A Symptom Present In A Large Number Of Diseases Or Disorders Of The Larynx, Which Are Spasmodic Or Inflamma Tory. Croup Occurs Mostly In Children And Is Characterized ...

Crow
Crow. The Crow Family (corvide), Order Passeres, Comprises Birds That Have A Strong Bill, Compressed Toward The Points, And Covered At The Base With Stiff, Bristly Feathers, Which Advance So Far As To Conceal The Nostrils. The Plumage Is Dense, Soft And Lustrous, Generally Dark, But Sometimes Of Gay Colors. ...

Crown
Crown, An Official Or Symbolical Orna Ment Worn On The Head, Now The Symbol Of Royalty. At First It Had No Regal Significance And Was Nothing More Than A Garland Of Leaves Or Flowers Bestowed On Athletes. Later It Was Made Of Gold And Was Bestowed On Citizens Deserving Well ...

Crown Lands
Crown Lands, English, Territories The British Isles Formerly The Private Property Of The Sovereign. Since George Iii, However, Every British Monarch Has On Accession Sur Rendered The Crown Lands To Be Disposed Of By Parliament. The Income From Them, Like The Other Revenues Of The State, Are Now Devoted To ...

Crown Point
Crown Point, A Town In Essex County, N. Y., On The West Shore Of Lake Champlain, On The Barge Canal And On The Delaware And Hudson Railroad, 110 Miles Northeast Cf Albany. It Has A Large Park, A Library And Chapel And A Memorial Lighthouse Erected' To Samuel De Champlain. ...

Crowns And Coronets
Crowns And Coronets. Crowns May Be Divided Into Three Classes; They May Be Either Emblems Of Royalty, Insignia Of Office Or Authority, Or Decorations Of Honor. The Insignia Of Royalty Adorning The Heads Of The Ancient Eastern Kings (assyrian, Babylonian, Etc.), Which In English Works Usually Are Termed Crowns, Were ...

Crucible
Crucible, A Vessel Used In Chemistry And The Arts For Containing Substances That Are To Be Subjected To High Temperatures. A Good Crucible Should Be Capable Of Withstanding Great And Sudden Changes Of Temperature Without Fracture Or Disintegration; It Should Not Be At Tacked By The Substance It Is To ...

Crucifixion
Crucifixion. The History Of Cruci Fixion As A Mode Of Punishment For Crime Must Be Studied As A Part Of The Roman System Of Jurisprudence Rather Than Of Any Eastern System, Asiatic Or Grecian. Greece And Asia Had Indeed From Very Early Times Occasionally Resorted To It ; But The ...

Cruden
Cruden, Kroo'den, Alexander, Scottish Biblical Scholar: B. Aberdeen, 31 May 1700; D, Islington, 1 Nov. 1770. He Was Educated At Aberdeen At Marischal College, With A View To The Church, But Having Exhibited Decided Symptoms Of Insanity, He Was Placed In Con Finement. On His Release In 1722 He Went ...

Cruikshank
Cruikshank, George, English Illus Trator And Caricaturist: B. London, 27 Sept. 1792; D. There, 1 Feb. 1878. Family Necessities Compelled Him When Still A Child To Produce What He Could, And The Want Of Careful Prelimi Nary Study At His Outset In Art Affected His Productions Through A Great Part ...

Crusades
Crusades (portug. Cruzado, ((marked With The Cross)), The Military Expeditions Which Were Sent Out By The Christian Peoples Of The West From The End Of The 11th Till The Latter Half Of The 13th Century For The Conquest Of Palestine. From The Earliest Times Pilgrims Had Gone To What, Because ...

Crushing And Grinding Ma
Crushing And Grinding Ma Chinery. This Article Describes The Class Of Crushers And Grinders Used To Break Up And Reduce Rock, Stone, Ore Pigments, Etc., To Frag Ments Or To Powder. Crushing Machines Are Used For Purposes Of Coarse Reduction. They Consist Of Various Forms Of "stamps" Or Stamp-mills, Crushing ...

Crustacea
Crustacea, Icrtis-ti'shd-a, A Primary Group (phylum) Of Animals Represented By The Barnacle, Lobster, Crayfish, Shrimp And Crab. Cnistacea Differ From Other Arthropod Animals. The Body Consists Of About 20 Segments Which In The More Specialized Forms Are Grouped Into Two Regions, The Head-thorax (cephalothorax) And Hind-body Or Abdomen. The Segments ...

Cryolite
Cryolite, Krn-lit (gr. Lice-stone," In Allusion To Its Translucent Whiteness), A Native Fluoride Of Aluminum And Sodium, Having The Formula 3naf.alfs. It Crystallizes In The Mono Clinic System, And Also Occurs Massive. It Is Transparent Or Translucent, And The Purer Varie Ties Are Colorless Or White. Its Lustre Is Vitreous, ...

Crypt
Crypt, In Architecture, A Cell Or Vault Constructed Underground. The Galleries Of The Catacombs And The Catacombs Themselves Were Known By This Name In The Early Christian Era. The Underground Tombs Of The Christian Martyrs Were So Called Where The Early Chris Tians Met To Perform Their Devotions, For Fear ...

Crystal
Crystal. The Term Crystal, Derived From A Greek Word Signifying A Hard Crust, Or More Specifically Ice, Was Applied By The Greeks At Least 400 }lc. To A Material Which They Supposed To Be A Hard, Durable Form Of Frozen Water. This Substance Is The Colorless, Transparent Variety Of Quartz ...

Crystallo Chemical Analysis
Crystallo-chemical Analysis. Professor Von Federow Published In The Zeit Schrift F. Krystallographie (38, 321-490; 501 513-575) A Method By Which It Is Claimed If A Few Measurable Crystals Of Any One Of The Over 10,000 Recorded Substances Be Subjected To A Short, Goniometrical Measurement On The Two Circle Goniometer, Occupying ...

Crystallography
Crystallography. Crystallography Is Broadly Divided Into ((geometrical Or Morpho-. Logical ((physical Crystallog Raphyo And ((chemical Crystallography.) In A Narrower Sense And As A Natural Result Of The Fact That The Geometrical Relations Were First Studied The Term Crystallography Is Restricted To A Study Of The Relations Between The Bounding Faces ...

Cuba
Cuba. An Island In The West Indies, Is Separated From The United States By The Strait Of Florida And From Mexico By The Yucatan And Corrusrands The Entrances Of The Gulf O Mexico. Extending East And West From The74th To The 85th Metidian, It Constitutes The Most Important Part Of ...

Cuckoo
Cuckoo, Formerly Spelled Cuckow, The English Name Of A Common Bird, So Called From The Note Of The Male, And Now Generally Applied To All Related Birds Of The Family Cuculida. The Cuckoo Of Europe, The Cnculus Canoeist Of Ornithologists, Perhaps Occupies More Space In General Literature Than Any Other ...

Cuckoo Flies
Cuckoo Flies, A Species Of The Hymen Opterous Family Chrystdida% Which, Cuckoo-like, Live At The Expense Of Various Solitary Bees And Wasps, But, Unlike The Usual Custom Of The Cuckoo Bees (q.v.), Actually Devour The Young Of Their Hosts. They May Be Seen In Hot Days Briskly Flying About And ...

Cucumber
Cucumber (cacumis Sativus And Its Con Geners), An Annual Trailing Or Climbing Vine Of The Natural Order Cucurbitacem, Cultivated For Its Unripe Fruits Which Are Used As A Salad And For Making Pickles. The Plant Is A Native Of Southern Asia Where It Has Been Cultivated Since Early Historic Time. ...

Cudworth
Cudworth, Ralph, English Clergyman And Philosopher : B. Aller, Somerset, 1617; D. Cambridge, 26 June 1688. He Was Educated At Emmanuel College, Cambridge, And Became An Eminent Tutor. He Was Subsequently Appointed Rector Of North Cadbury, Somerset, And In 1642 Published A 'discourse Concerning The True Nature Of The Lord's ...

Cuenca
Cuenca, Koo-inicii, Ecuador, Capital Of The Province Of Azuay, And In Size The Third City Of The Republic, Quito Being First And Guayaquil Second. It Is Situated In The Canton Of Cuenca, 8,640 Feet Above The Level Of The Sea; The Mean Annual Temperature Is One Degree Higher Than That ...

Cueva
Cueva, Juan De La, Hoo-arisda Li Kwi'va, Spanish Poet: B. Seville About 1550; D. 1609. Little Is Known About His Life. He Spent Sev Eral Years In Mexico Where He Was A Sort Of Private Secretary To His Brother Claudio, One Of The Principal Officers Of The Inquisition. He Also ...

Cufic Writing
Cufic Writing, The Written Characters Of Which The Arabians Now Make Use, And Which We Meet In Printed Works, Namely, The Neskhi Characters Are An Invention Of The 4th Century Of The Hegira. Before This Time The Cufic Characters, So Called From The Town Of Cufa, Or Kufa, Where They ...

Cuirass
Cuirass, Kwe-r3s'. Defensive Armor Pro Tecting The Body From Neck To Hips. The Word Undoubtedly Is Derived From The French Word Cuir (leather), Probably From The Fact That, At The Time Of Its Coining, The Piece Of Armor Was Made Of Cuir Bouith (leather Hardened By Boiling Or Steeping In ...

Culdees
Culdees, Koordez, Members Of An Order Of Monks Or An Imitation Of Such An Order, In The British Isles And Particularly In Gaelic Land, Of Which Mention Begins To Occur In Mediaeval Annals And Other Writings In The 1 Lth Century. The Name Culdee, In The Scottish Cuilteach, Believed To ...

Cumberland
Cumberland, Md., City And The County Seat Of Allegany County, 150 Miles Southeast Of Pittsburgh; 178 Miles Northwest Of Baltimore; 152 Miles Northwest Of Washington, D. C., Is Picturesquely Located On The Potomac River, 632 Feet Above Tide Water. It Is Also On The Main Line Of The Baltimore And ...

Cumberland Gap
Cumberland Gap, On The Dividing Line Of Virginia And Kentucky On The North, And Ten Nessee On The South, Is The Main Gateway Of The Cumberland Mountains, Between Eastern Ken Tucky And East Tennessee. Early In The Civil War It Was Occupied By The Confederates And Remained In Their Possession ...

Cumberland Road
Cumberland Road, The, Or Great National Pike, Originally, A Road Planned From The Maryland Frontier At Cumberland, Md., To Connect With The State Roads And Run To Saint Louis (then Just Fallen Into United States Hands By The Louisiana Purchase) ; To Open Up The West To Immigrants, And Provide ...

Cumje
Cumje, Kii'ine, A Very Ancient City In Cam Pania, And The Oldest Colony Of The Greeks In Italy Was Founded About 1030 A.c., According To Ancient Authorities, By Colonists From Chaim In Eubcea And From Cyme In Asia Minor. Strabo Tells Us That It Was The Oldest Of All Greek ...

Cuneiform Writing
Cuneiform Writing Is So Called Be Cause Its Characters Consist Of Strokes Of The Shape Of A Wedge (latin, Cuneus) ; And For A Like Reason It Is Also Known As Arrow-headed But Less Widely; It Is A Mode Of Writing Used • In Early Times, And Till The Downfall ...

Cunliffe
Cunliffe, John William, American Educator: B. Bolton, Lancashire, England, 20 Jan. 1865. He Was Educated At The University Of London And At Owens College, Manchester. He Taught English Literature At Mcgill Univer Sity, Montreal, From 1899 To 1906, At Columbia University In 1906, And At The University Of Wisconsin Until ...

Cuore
Cuore, Kfi-o're, *a Book For Boys,* By Edmondo De Amicis, Which, As He Says In The Brief Preface To The Story, Is Dedicated To The Boys Between 9 And 13 Years Of Age In The Elementary Schools, And Might Well Be Entitled: *story Of A School Year Written By A ...

Cura
Cura, Koo'ra, Also Ciudad De Cura, Venezuela, City Situated 56 Miles West Of Caracas And A Short Distance From Lake Valencia, In The Old State Of Miranda (now Separated Into The States Of Rivas, Guarico And Miranda). It Was Founded In 1730 By Juan Bolivar Y Villegas. The Site Of ...

Curassow
Curassow, Kfi-ras'o, A Bird Of The Sub Family Cracitse And Family Cracid.x Of The Gallifornses, Related To The Guan (q.v.) And Mound-bird (q.v.). The Name Is Derived From The Supposed Origin Of Those First Known To Europeans From The Island Of Curacao. The Curassows Are Exclusively Birds Of Tropical America ...

Curfew
Curfew, Ker'fii, Also Curfeu, From The. French Couvrir, To Cover, And Feu, Fire. The Ringing Of A Bell At Nightfall, Originally De Signed As A Signal To The Inhabitants To Cover Their Fires, Extinguish Lights And Retire To Rest. The Practice Is Said To Have Been Instituted By William The ...

Curia Regis
Curia Regis (lat. "kings Court"), In English History, The Name Applied At Different Times To Three Distinct Judicial Bodies: (1) The Feudal Assembly Of The Tenants-in-chief ; (2) The Privy Council, Organized Under Henry I; (3) The Court Of King's Bench, Founded In 1178. The First Of These Bodies Constituted ...

Curia Romana
Curia Romana, Strictly, The Authorities Which Administer The Papal Primacy, The Ensem Ble Of Departments Which Assist The Sovereign Pontiff In The Government Of The Roman Cath Olic Church. It Includes The Tribunals, The Offices Of Curia And The Roman Congregations. (ste Congregations, Roman). The Tribunals Of The Curia Are ...

Curie
Curie, Kii-re, Pierre And Marie, Distin Guished Physicists, The Former French And The Latter Polish, Of Whom A Writer In The Scientific American Has Said That Athey Afford An Example Of A Most Interesting Collaboration, Since It Con Cerns A Husband And Wife, Both Of High Scien Tific Attainments, Who ...

Curling
Curling, A Scottish Game Played On The Ice, With Large Smooth Stones Of A Hemispher Ical Form, With An Iron Or Wooden Handle At The Top, Which The Players Slide From One Mark To Another. The Space Within Which The Stones Move Is Called The (32-42 Yards Long And 10 ...

Curran
Curran, John Philpot, Irish Orator: B. Newmarket, Near Cork, 24 July 1750; D. Lon Don, 14 Oct 1817. He Was Designed For The Church And Educated At Trinity College, Dub Lin, After Which He Went To London And Studied At One Of The Inns Of Court. His Youth Was Rollicking ...

Currant
Currant, Originally, The Small Black Seedless Raisins Popularly Used In Cookery, And So Named From The Greek City Of Corinth, Where They First Became Commercially Important; By Extension, Various Species Of The Genus Ribes And Their Fruits. The Former Belongs To The Genus Vitis (see Grape Culture) Of The Natural ...

Currency
Currency, A Popular Term Sometimes Used As Synonymous With The Phrase Medium Of Exchange But More Commonly Confined To The Paper Elements Of The Medium. If Used In The Broader Sense, Two Kinds Should Be Distin Guished, Metallic And Paper. Metallic Currency May Be Classified On The Basis Of Its ...

Current Meter
Current Meter, An Instrument For Measuring The Velocity Of The Flow In Rivers And Streams. The Current Meter Used By The United States Geological Survey Consists Of Two Essen Tial Parts: (1) A Wheel Which Is So Arranged That The Flowing Water Shall Turn It Steadily, And (2) A Device ...

Curriculum
Curriculum, The Term Applied To A Course Of Study, Or Collectively To That Of Any Type Of Educational Institutions, As The College Curriculum, The High-school Curriculum, The Common-school Curriculum, Etc. The Historical Basis Of The Modern Educational Curriculum Is Found In The Seven Liberal Arts Of The Middle Ages, Which ...

Curtis
Curtis, George William, American Essayist And Journalist: B. Providence, R. I., 24 Feb. 1824; D. New Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y., 31 Aug. 1892. At 18 He Spent Some Months At Brook Farm (q.v.) And A Few Years Later Visited The Old World, The Results Of His Travels Appearing In ...

Curtis_2
Curtis, John Ticknor, American Lawyer, Author And Publisher: B..watertown, Mass., 28 Nov. 1812; D. New York, 28 March 1894. He Was Graduated From Harvard In 1832, Admitted To The Bar (boston, Mass.) In 1836 And Prac Tised In Worcester, Mass., And Boston. From 1840 He Sat Three Years In The ...

Curtiss
Curtiss, Samuel Ives, American Congre Gationalist Clergyman : L). Union, Conn., 5 Feb. 1844; D. London, England, 22 Sept. 1904. He Was Graduated At Amherst College 1867, And The Union Theological Seminary 1870; And Was Pastor Of The American Chapel In Leipzig 1874-78. In 1878 He Was Appointed Professor Of ...

Curves
Curves, Higher Plane. A Curve Can Be Looked Upon In Many Ways; Geometrically As The Intersection Of Two Surfaces, As The Locus Of A Moving Point, Or Envelope Of A Moving Line; Analytically As A Representation Of An Equation In Point- Or Line-co-ordinates, And Therefore As Yielding A Singly Infinite ...

Curves Of Double Curvature
Curves Of Double Curvature In French, Courbes Pouches; In German, Curven Doppelter Krummung). A Curve Whose Points Do Not All Lie In A Plane Is Variously Called Space Curve, Twisted Curve, Tortuous Curve Or Curve Of Double Curvature. The Sig Nificance Of The Last-named Designation Be Comes Apparent In The ...