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Cruden

scriptures, alexander and corrector

CRUDEN, kroo'den, Alexander, Scottish biblical scholar: b. Aberdeen, 31 May 1700; d, Islington, 1 Nov. 1770. He was educated at Aberdeen at Marischal College, with a view to the Church, but having exhibited decided symptoms of insanity, he was placed in con finement. On his release in 1722 he went to London, where he was employed as tutor in several families. Previous to 1732 he opened a bookseller's shop under the Royal Exchange, and in 1735 was appointed bookseller to Queen Caroline. His great work appeared in 1737, under the title of 'A Complete Concordance of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Tes tament' In a pecuniary point of view it was not at first successful, and the embarrassments to which it reduced the author caused a return of a mental malady, which occasioned his being sent by his friends to a lunatic asylum. After his release he instituted an action of damages against those who had confined him, and pub lished an account of his confinement under a whimsical title. He then acted as corrector for the press, and began to believe that he was divinely commissioned to correct the manners of the world. He styled himself 'Alexander

the Corrector,' and went about exhorting the people to keep the Sabbath. He also petitioned the king for the honor of knighthood and Par liament to constitute him by act "the Corrector of the People.* In 1753 he was again placed in confinement, and again, on being liberated, published an account of his case. Of Cruden's great work, the Concordance, three editions appeared during his life. The pains which he took with it were prodigious, constructing it anew from the foundation, without availing himself of the labors of his predecessors, and verifying personally the accuracy of each quo tation and reference. The best edition is by Alexander Chalmers (London 1812; 10th ed., 1824, with a memoir). He was also the author of 'A Scripture Dictionary, or Guide to the Holy SCriptures' ; and 'The History and Excellency of the Scriptures.'